UNIT 2

maisy r
Quiz by maisy r, updated more than 1 year ago
maisy r
Created by maisy r over 2 years ago
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Description

Quiz on UNIT 2 , created by maisy r on 02/06/2019.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which of these layers of the Sun is the coolest?
Answer
  • Corona
  • Photosphere
  • Transition zone
  • Chromosphere
  • Convection zone

Question 2

Question
A sudden, violent disruption (usually found near a sunspot) that releases an enormous amount of energy in almost all wavelengths in a very short amount of time is called a solar
Answer
  • prominence
  • aurora
  • facula
  • filament
  • flare

Question 3

Question
From Earth, we can observe individual sunspots moving across the face of the Sun as the Sun rotates. Because the Sun is large, the time it takes for them to move from the eastern edge of the Sun's disk over the western edge, from our viewpoint, is about
Answer
  • two weeks.
  • 2 months.
  • 5.5 years.
  • 1 week.
  • a month.

Question 4

Question
From the outside moving in towards the centre of the Sun, which sequence of layers is in the correct order for the structure of the Sun?
Answer
  • corona, radiative zone, photosphere, core
  • photosphere, chromosphere, radiative zone, core
  • chromosphere, radiative zone, convective zone, core
  • transition zone, photosphere, chromosphere, radiative zone
  • chromosphere, convective zone, radiative zone, core

Question 5

Question
The Sun goes through a regular cycle of activity on its surface due to changes in its complex magnetic field. This cycle can be tracked by watching for changes in the number of sunspots that appear on its photosphere. The activity is at a maximum when the sunspot number is at its highest. On average, how long does the cycle last before it repeats itself?
Answer
  • about 76 years
  • between 25 and 35 days
  • 365.25 days
  • about 11 years
  • about seven years

Question 6

Question
Stellar spectra tell us that ________ is the second most abundant element in the Sun.
Answer
  • iron
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen
  • helium
  • carbon

Question 7

Question
As a direct result of the nuclear reaction process in the central core of the Sun, the only EM radiation released into the outer portions of the core and the radiative layer immediately surrounding it is
Answer
  • X-rays
  • UV rays
  • visible light
  • gamma rays
  • infrared rays

Question 8

Question
The Sun's photosphere layer is composed of convecting bubbles of charged gas particles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
Because of the tremendous pressure/density present in the Sun's radiative zone, photons of light trying to leave the core of the Sun take about __________________________ to travel through the radiative zone to the next outer solar layer.
Answer
  • 12,000 years
  • 8 months
  • 12 weeks
  • 200,000 years
  • 600 years

Question 10

Question
In the nuclear fusion process, two protons (from hydrogen atoms) can only fuse in a region where the minimum temperature is greater than about ___________________.
Answer
  • 200 million K.
  • 15 million K
  • 1,500,000 K.
  • 12 million K.
  • 100 million K.

Question 11

Question
The final step in transporting energy to the surface of the Sun is via convection.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Helioseismology has allowed scientists to develop a fairly sophisticated model of the internal structure of the Sun. This was possible through the study of ________________________ which astronomers began in the 1960's.
Answer
  • changes in solar x-ray flares
  • coronal mass ejections
  • magnetic field line reconnection events
  • variations in the solar flux - the overall solar energy output doppler-shifted absorption lines in the solar spectrum
  • doppler-shifted absorption lines in the solar spectrum

Question 13

Question
The constantly changing markings on the surface of the Sun which are actually the tops of hot convective cells rising in the photosphere are known as...
Answer
  • granules
  • flares
  • faculae
  • spicules

Question 14

Question
What causes the cycle of solar activity?
Answer
  • Changes in magnetic fields due to rotation and upwellings from deep in the solar interior by way of conveyor belts.
  • Cyclical changes in the Sun's fusion rate due to sinking and mixing of heavier elements from outer core material.
  • The gravitational collapse of helium atoms towards the core.
  • The cyclical build up and release of energy created through the radioactive decay of hydrogen isotopes in the region surrounding the core.
  • A cyclical build up and oxidation of carbon in the core.

Question 15

Question
The charged particles blasting out of the Sun's atmosphere and traveling in the solar wind travel at almost 300,000 km/s.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
Sunspots contain 2 zones - a cooler central umbra and a warmer outer penumbra.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
The strongest magnetic fields in the photosphere lie near
Answer
  • prominences
  • flares
  • sunspots.
  • auroras
  • granules

Question 18

Question
The Sun sheds about _____________________ tonnes of particles each second in a continuous flow out of its outer atmosphere (known as the "solar wind").
Answer
  • 1,000
  • 5 million
  • 20,000
  • 1 million
  • 400,000

Question 19

Question
Which is the net result of the proton-proton chain?
Answer
  • 4 protons → 2 helium 2 + 2 positrons + ultraviolet radiation
  • 6 protons → 2 helium 4 + 3 positrons + 3 neutrinos + gamma rays
  • 4 protons → 1 helium 4 + a positron + a neutrino + gamma rays
  • Correct 4 protons → 1 helium 4 + 2 neutrinos + gamma rays

Question 20

Question
While the photosphere produces chiefly visible light, most coronal energy is in the form of
Answer
  • radio waves
  • X-rays.
  • gamma rays.
  • infrared radiation.
  • ultraviolet light.

Question 21

Question
Who was the first scientist (1887) to notice that the sun's regular activity/sunspot cycle goes through occasional slumps, where for a number of years, there are significantly lower numbers of sunspots than normal - even in years of supposed maximum activity?
Answer
  • E.W. Maunder
  • Gustav Sporer
  • Alexander Friedmann
  • Vesto Slipher
  • Joseph von Fraunhofer

Question 22

Question
Astronomers estimate that every second the sun produces an amount of energy equivalent to the explosion of about....
Answer
  • 100 billion 1-megaton nuclear bombs
  • 500 million 1-megaton nuclear bombs
  • 250 million 1-megaton nuclear bombs
  • 400 billion 1-megaton nuclear bombs

Question 23

Question
How often does the Sun's entire magnetic field flip in its orientation?
Answer
  • about once every 18 months
  • once every 176 years
  • once a month
  • once every 22 years
  • once every 11 years

Question 24

Question
In the 1970s, astronomers discovered that many of the expected neutrinos supposedly emitted by the Sun were not being detected. A theory evolved that they were oscillating between three states as they travelled away from the Sun. What are the three states that a neutrino can take?
Answer
  • muon, gluon, and electron
  • gluon, sigma, and tau
  • tau, electron, gluon
  • electron, tau, and muon
  • tau, sigma and muon

Question 25

Question
In order to produce the 4 x 1026 watts of energy that it radiates, the Sun, through nuclear fusion, must convert _______________________ tonnes of hydrogen into helium each second.
Answer
  • 20 million
  • 600 million
  • 1.88 million
  • 1.2 billion
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