Paraproteins are a marker of an underlying clonal B cell disorder
What is the best form of investigation for detecting Paraproteins
Immunophenotyping by Flow Cytometry
Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridisation
Paraproteins found on Serum Electrophoresis tend to present in the [blank_start]Gamma[blank_end] band
After serum electrophoresis has been conducted to detect paraproteins, serum [blank_start]immunofixation[blank_end] should then be conducted in order to classify the abnormal protein band
Bence Jones Protein is a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain which is detected by [blank_start]urine[blank_end] electrophoresis
The presence of Bence Jones Protein in the urine is suggestive of which two of the following conditions?
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS)
Alpha heavy chain disease
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
Which of the following is most common condition causative of paraproteinaemia?
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a benign (premalignant) condition which can predispose to Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma causes [blank_start]renal[blank_end] failure and increased [blank_start]bone breakdown[blank_end]
Myeloma is classified based on which type of monoclonal antibody is produced. What is the most common type of Myeloma?
Due to bone breakdown occurring as part of Myeloma, it also typically causes raised [blank_start]Calcium[blank_end] levels in the blood
The paraproteins in Myeloma bring about renal failure by blocking the renal [blank_start]tublues[blank_end]
Paraproteins blocking the renal tubules as part of Myeloma forms small aggregations leading to what is known as [blank_start]cast[blank_end] nephropathy
Myeloma tends to affect those in their [blank_start]60s[blank_end]
Levels of [blank_start]paraprotein[blank_end] in the blood should be monitored in order to monitor the response of a Myeloma patient to Chemotherapy.
Which of the following should be avoided in Myeloma patients?
Which drug type should be given to myeloma patients in order to correct their hypercalcaemia and reduce their bone pain?
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) can be diagnosed when there is a paraprotein level of [blank_start]<30g/l[blank_end] and a bone marrow plasma cell level of [blank_start]<10%[blank_end]. There must also be no evidence of any end organ damage (e.g. renal failure, bone marrow failure, etc)
A plasma cell immunoglobulin disorder is suspected in a patient. When a sample from the patient was stained using Congo Red and placed under polarising light it showed an 'apple-green' birefringence. What condition is the patient suffering from?
Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia is a condition which characteristically involves [blank_start]IgM[blank_end] Paraproteins