Which of the following is not a characteristic of polycystic kidney disease?
ongoing development and growth of fluid-filled cysts in nephrons
cysts form in renal arteries blocking kidney perfusion
cysts clock blood flow in kidneys, reducing function and causing hypertension and kidney failure
abdominal and/or flank pain
The nurse expects to find [blank_start]elevated BUN[blank_end] and normal/high normal serum creatinine in a patient who is dehydrated.
Which kidney disorder results in huge loss of protein molecules in the urine AND reduced serum protein (albumin)?
polycystic kidney disease
The patient was admitted yesterday with sudden onset of periorbital edema, hypoalbuminemia, and foamy/frothy urine. His fasting labs this morning indicate hyperlipidemia. What is this patient's medical diagnosis?
chronic kidney disease
polycystic kidney disease
A patient who weighs 220 lbs is in the ED after being treated for trauma from a motor vehicle accident. The patient's urine output is being closely monitored. At which of the following output levels would the patient be diagnosed with AKI?
50 mL/hr for 6 hours
75 mL/hr for 10 hours
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level is used most often to measure the liver's production of urea.
Which of the following are substances that should prompt the nurse to closely monitor the BUN and creatinine of a patient who takes them or is scheduled to receive them?
NSAIDS like ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib
aminoglycosides like gentamycin and tobramycin
beta blockers like atenolol and propanolol
Drag and drop the correct description to each dot on the diagram.
Prerenal failure can be caused by [blank_start]what[blank_end].
Intrarenal or intrinsic renal failure can be caused by [blank_start]what[blank_end]
Postrenal failure can be caused by [blank_start]what[blank_end]
blood clots in the urinary tract
bleeding in the kidney
A patient is having urine collected for a 24 hour urea nitrogen measurement. A new provider orders a urinalysis with culture & sensitivity to be done as soon as possible. What action should the nurse take?
call the new provider and explain that the specimen will be collected after the 24 hour collection is completed
collect urine for the UA with C & S as long as the volume is less than 10 mL
collect urine for the UA with C & S and record that volume of urine was obtained (<30 mL)
call the lab and have them run the UA with C & S off the 24 hour collection when they receive it
The client has acute glomerulonephritis. Which of the following is the nurse likely to assess?
hematuria and proteinuria
high blood pressure
periorbital, facial, and peripheral edema
fluid and sodium retention
a recent history of strep pharyngitis
Lab testing reveals that a patient's kidney stone is comprised of calcium oxalate. The patient should avoid all of the following foods except:
chocolate & nuts
lettuce and cheese
spinach and beets
tea and wheat bran
The well-informed nurse knows that smoking is NOT a risk factor for the development of [blank_start]chronic renal failure[blank_end].
chronic renal failure
renal cell/urothelial carcinoma
The nurse is developing a patient's plan for bladder training. The patient suffers from
urinary tract infection
A patient has been taught to do Kegel's exercises due to a diagnosis of
Choose all of the drugs that are known to be nephrotoxic.
Which of the following indicates Stage 4 CKD (severe CKD)?
GFR of 27 mL/min
BUN 30; serum creatinine 4 mg/dL
urine output of 55 mL/hr
serum pH of 7.29
A post-operative patient has had an episode of severe hypotension with blood pressure in the range of 80s/30s-40s. This patient is at risk for
is caused by ureter blockage
decreases glomerular permeability
causes severe proteinuria
can lead to hypotension
Severe chronic kidney disease leads to [blank_start]azotemia[blank_end] which is build up of nitrogenous wastes in the blood. When these wastes cause symptoms the term is [blank_start]uremia[blank_end]. Symptoms of uremia include anorexia, nausea/vomiting, [blank_start]skin "frost"[blank_end], itching, [blank_start]edema[blank_end], and metallic taste in the mouth.
A patient has missed two hemodialysis appointments. What would you expect to find?
crackles auscultated in bilateral lung bases
poor skin turgor and dry mucous membranes
hypokalemia & hypophosphatemia
The nurse palpates a thrill over a mature fistula in the patient's forearm. What is the appropriate action for the nurse to take?
Document the expected finding and continue to assess as ordered/per protocol.
Assess VS and circulation distal to the fistula and notify the provider as soon as possible.
Reassess the fistula every 30 minutes or as per protocol
Assess the fistula in the contralateral arm for comparison, call the provider, and document.
Which of the following is a patient with chronic kidney disease least at risk for?
Which of the following can contribute to urine stasis and put the patient at risk for pyelonephritis? Select all that apply.
diabetic neuropathy of the bladder
Adequate [blank_start]hydration[blank_end] can help prevent urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is a [blank_start]stone[blank_end] in the urinary system. A priority in the treatment of a kidney stone is alleviation of [blank_start]pain[blank_end].
A fairly common and significant [blank_start]complication[blank_end] of peritoneal [blank_start]dialysis[blank_end] is [blank_start]peritonitis[blank_end], thus, it is important for the nurse to keep connections [blank_start]sterile[blank_end] when doing a fluid exchange.
off the floor
Azotemia is the term for build up of [blank_start]nitrogenous[blank_end] wastes in the blood. Examples of these waste products include creatinine and [blank_start]urea[blank_end]. Uremia (think "urine in the blood") is the term for azotemia with symptoms and signs.
Signs and symptoms of uremia include which of the following? Select all that apply.
anorexia, nausea, vomiting
uremic frost and pruritis
agitation and hyperactivity
dyspnea and edema
rash on the torso
muscle cramps and hiccups
low hematocrit and hemoglobin
proteinuria, hematuria, nocturia, oliguria
The health care provider (HCP) is assessing the patient for CVA tenderness. Which of the following conditions does the HCP suspect?
acute kidney injury
polycystic kidney disease
Which of the following gives a female patient clean catch urine specimen collection steps in the correct order?
wash hands, separate labia, clean urethral meatus with three separate wipes, urinate into cup
wash hands, separate labia, urinate a small amount into toilet, urinate into cup
wash hands, separate labia, clean urethral meatus with three separate wipes, urinate a small amount into toilet, urinate into cup
wash hands, urinate small amount into toilet, urinate into cup
Which of the following are true regarding extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy? Select all that apply.
the purpose is to break urinary tract calculi into fragments that can be eliminated by voiding
requires full anesthesia
requires continuous ECG monitoring
no radiation use is necessary
urine should be strained and measured following the procedure
flank ecchymosis/bruising on the affected side may occur following the procedure
requires dressing changes and incision care post-procedure
All of the following are risk factors for renal injury and failure EXCEPT FOR ONE. Which one of the following is NOT a known risk?
dehydration and/or hypotension
history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
NSAIDs, chemotherapy, antibiotics
radiographic contrast dye and heavy metals
history of diabetes mellitus
history of hypertension
systemic infection or recent acute illness
Renal failure can result in metabolic [blank_start]acidosis[blank_end]. To compensate, the respiratory system will attempt to [blank_start]raise[blank_end] pH by increasing the rate and depth of respirations to achieve [blank_start]homeostasis[blank_end].