When do babies show understanding that others have goals?
When do babies carry out the intended actions of a failed goal?
Heider and Simmel (1944) used a short animation of shapes and found that:
People described what the shapes were doing (e.g. they were shaking, moved from one side of the screen to the other)
People attributed social cues to their narration (e.g. the triangle was scared, the square was being a bully)
Females tended to narrate stories, males tended to describe the shapes exactly as they were
Children tended to narrate stories, adults tended to describe the shapes exactly as they were
Meltzoff (1995) found that children carried out the intended action of a human __% of the time, and carried out the intended action of a machine __% of the time.
At [blank_start]___[blank_end] months, children gave the researcher what they themselves preferred.
At [blank_start]___[blank_end] months, children gave the researcher what the other preferred.
Theory of Mind is...
A theory about how the mind works and why we are able to think
Theorising how others might perceive you
Attributing beliefs about the desires and perspectives of others
A theory that explains the different levels existing within the mind
4 year olds: (select 2)
Find success in the Smarties task
Find success in the Sally/Anne task
Do not find success in the Smarties task
Do not find success in the Sally/Anne task
[blank_start]2-3 year olds[blank_end] use language
[blank_start]6 months[blank_end] smiles and babbles
[blank_start]3-4 months[blank_end] looks and touches
[blank_start]1-2 year olds[blank_end] coordinate interactions (e.g. mutual imitation)
2-3 year olds
3-4 year olds
4+ years olds
1-2 year olds
Parten (1932) observed
three stages of play in 2-4 year olds
three types of peer groups in 10-12 year old
gender differences in play groups in 2-4 year olds
gender differences in peer groups in 10-12 year olds
Who developed a sociogram of the interactions of children over a 5 week period?
Clark et al. (1969)
Selman (1980) established 5 stages of friendship:
- Momentary playmate
- One way assistance
- Fair-weather cooperation
- Intimate, mutually shared
- Mature friendship
According to Selman (1980), what are five stages of friendship?
3-7 years - [blank_start]momentary playmate[blank_end]
4-9 years - [blank_start]one-way assistance[blank_end]
6-12 years - [blank_start]fair-weather cooperation[blank_end]
11-15 years - [blank_start]intimate, mutually shared[blank_end]
Teen-adulthood - [blank_start]mature friendship[blank_end]
intimate, mutually shared
In a study of 16-18 year olds in Italy, __% had claimed to see themselves as belonging to a peer group, hung out in cliques and saw their group as an important aspect of their life. (Palmonari, 1989)
Brown et al. (1986) found that conformity generally [blank_start]_[blank_end] occur.
Questionnaire responses indicate that ____________________________ (Berndt, 1979).
both 11-12 year olds and 14-15 year olds conform to social pressures
11-12 year olds conform to social pressures, 14-15 year olds conform to anti-social pressures
both 11-12 year olds and 14-15 year olds conform to anti-social pressures
11-12 year olds conform to anti-social pressures, 14-15 year olds conform to social pressures
What are the three levels of peer groups according to Brown (1980).
(select all 3)