PMU - Year 1 Physics - Part 4(A)

Sole C
Quiz by Sole C, updated more than 1 year ago
Sole C
Created by Sole C about 6 years ago
102
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Description

All Questions uploaded word for word from MCQ book. All Credit to Authors. Mistakes due in process may have been made, use and check your work at your own discretion. Only simple writing allowed, i.e Superscript and Subscript absent. Questions missed due to Figure/Diagrams/Text: 11.44.46.57

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Protons and neutrons in a nucleus are termed:
Answer
  • Beta-particles
  • Photons
  • Nucleons

Question 2

Question
Linear attenuation coefficient of photoelectric absorption (photoelectric effect interaction probability) τ is:
Answer
  • Inversely proportional to the atomic number of the element Ζ
  • Inversely proportional to the mass number A
  • Proportional on the density ρ

Question 3

Question
Linear attenuation coefficient of photoelectric absorption τ depends strongly (approximately to the 4-th power) on:
Answer
  • The density of substance
  • The atomic number of element Z
  • The temperature of substance - t

Question 4

Question
Linear attenuation coefficient for Compton effect (Compton scattering interaction probability) δ is proportional to:
Answer
  • Atomic mass number A
  • Density of substance
  • The ratio A/Z

Question 5

Question
Linear attenuation coefficient for Compton effect is proportional to:
Answer
  • pZ4
  • pZ2
  • pZ/A

Question 6

Question
Linear attenuation coefficient for pair production (electron-positron production probability) X is proportional to:
Answer
  • Atomic mass number A
  • The square of the atomic number of the element Z2
  • The ratio of A/Z

Question 7

Question
Predominant mode of interaction between conventional diagnostic x-ray and biological tissues (Figure 11. not included) is:
Answer
  • Pair production (electron-positron)
  • Photoelectric absorption
  • Compton effect (scattering)

Question 8

Question
Interaction of photonic ionizing radiation with matter will
Answer
  • Reduce radiation intensity
  • Not change radiation intensity
  • Increase radiation intensity

Question 9

Question
What type of interaction between diagnostic x-rays and matter is improbable:
Answer
  • Photoelectric absorption
  • Pair production (electron-positron)
  • Compton effect

Question 10

Question
Consider attenuation of photon beam in water/soft tissue (figure 11. not included). Which statement is true:
Answer
  • Photons may undergo two successive photoelectric transitions
  • Compton scattering has a threshold energy of 1.022 MeV
  • Photoelectric effect increases with photo energies
  • Photoelectric and Compton effects equal at 25 KeV

Question 11

Question
Roentgen Rays are:
Answer
  • Photons
  • Electrons
  • Positrons

Question 12

Question
Roentgen rays are:
Answer
  • Electromagnetic Radiation:
  • Protons
  • Electrons

Question 13

Question
X-rays have
Answer
  • A wavelength longer than that of the visible light
  • Positive Electric Charge
  • Ionizing Capacity

Question 14

Question
The wavelength of the roentgen radiation is within the range of:
Answer
  • 380 - 760 nm
  • 0.76 - 1000 µm
  • 10 - 380 µm
  • Less than 10 nm

Question 15

Question
X-rays have:
Answer
  • Frequency higher than that of the visible light
  • Direct ionizing capacity
  • Negative electric charge

Question 16

Question
Characteristic x-ray radiation:
Answer
  • Has continuous energy spectrum
  • Does not differ from braking radiation spectrum
  • Is obtained from K and L shell electron transitions from high atomic shells.

Question 17

Question
Continuous x-ray energy spectrum:
Answer
  • Contains several photons with different energy
  • Does not differ from the characteristic x-ray spectrum
  • Is a result of rapid deceleration of electrons near target nuclei

Question 18

Question
Intensity ψ of radiation in x-ray tube is proportional to:
Answer
  • The atomic number Z of anode's material
  • The 3-th power of anode U3/a
  • The 2-nd power of anode I2/a

Question 19

Question
Intensity ψ of roentgen radiation (x-ray tube) is proportional to:
Answer
  • The 3-th power of anode voltage U3/a
  • The anode current Ia
  • The 2-nd power of the atomic number Z2 of anodes material.

Question 20

Question
Intensity ψ of roentgen radiation (x-ray tube) if proportional to:
Answer
  • Density p of the cathode material
  • The 2-nd power of anode voltage U2/a
  • The 2-nd power of anode current I2/a

Question 21

Question
Minimum wavelength λmin (maximum energy) of x-ray tube radiation depends on:
Answer
  • Anode Voltage Ua
  • Anode current
  • The atomic number Z of the element of which anode is made
  • Density p of the material of which cathode is made

Question 22

Question
Filters in x-ray apparatus modify:
Answer
  • The minimum wavelength λmin of x-ray braking spectrum
  • The amount of anode Voltage Ua
  • The intensity ψ of roentgen radiation

Question 23

Question
Intensity ψ of the Roentgen rays is proportional to:
Answer
  • U2IZ
  • UI2Z
  • UIZ2

Question 24

Question
Hardness of x-ray radiation (harder/softer) is changed by:
Answer
  • Anode voltage Ua
  • Beam intensity ψ
  • Anode current Ia

Question 25

Question
The relationship between HVL (Half Value Layer) and linear attenuation coefficient µ is
Answer
  • HVL = ln(2)/µ
  • HVL = µ/ln(2)
  • HVL = µ*ln(2)

Question 26

Question
Water is said to be soft tissue equivalent with respect to x-ray attenuation. This is because water and soft tissue have approximately the same properties. Which properties are NOT the same? (there are more than one correct answers)
Answer
  • Effective atomic number Zeff
  • Effective molecular weight
  • Physical density p
  • Attenuation Coefficient µ

Question 27

Question
The purpose of the introduction of contrast substances in the roentgen diagnostics is to:
Answer
  • Obtain coloring in the roentgenogram and not only black and white images
  • Increasing the contrast between soft tissues
  • Reduce the radiation dose on patients

Question 28

Question
Contrast substances in diagnostics radiology will:
Answer
  • Increase contrast between different soft tissues
  • Increase contrast between soft tissues and bones
  • Obliterate cancer cells

Question 29

Question
Which of the listed chemical elements provides maximum contrast in diagnostic radiology:
Answer
  • Calcium: Z = 20, p = 1.55 g/cm3
  • Barium: Z = 56, p = 3.5 g/cm3
  • Iodine: Z = 53, p = 4.94 g/cm3

Question 30

Question
Roentgen osteo-densitometry (measurement of bone density) is based on which of the following phenomena:
Answer
  • Diffraction of roentgen rays (x-rays)
  • Scattering of roentgen rays (x-rays)
  • Attenuation of Roentgen rays (x-rays)

Question 31

Question
Hounsfield Unit (CT number) for bones is equal to:
Answer
  • 0
  • up to (+3000)
  • (-1000)

Question 32

Question
Hounsfield unit (CT number) for air is equal to:
Answer
  • 0
  • Up to (+3000)
  • (-1000)

Question 33

Question
Hounsfield unit (CT number) for water is equal to:
Answer
  • 0
  • up to (+3000)
  • (-1000)

Question 34

Question
Hounsfield unit (CT number) is defined as:
Answer
  • (µ-tissue + µ-water) / µ-water
  • (µ-tissue - µ-water) / µ-water
  • (µ-tissue - µ-water) / µ-tissue

Question 35

Question
Predominant x-ray interaction mode in CT scanning is:
Answer
  • Photoelectric absorption & compton scattering
  • Electron-positron pair production & photoelectric absorption
  • Compton scattering & electron-positron pair production

Question 36

Question
CT diagnostic imaging is based on the phenomenon of:
Answer
  • Reflection of reoentgean rays at the boundary between different structures
  • Absorption of roentgen rays by tissues exposed to radiation
  • Attenuation of roentgen rays by tissues exposed to radiation

Question 37

Question
What is the meaning of "computed" in name of CT (computed tomography)?
Answer
  • Calculation of radiation dose
  • Control of the scanning process
  • Formation of the final image

Question 38

Question
Computed tomography uses higher anode voltage compared to conventional roentgenography because
Answer
  • Patients are placed further away from x-ray source
  • Rotation of x-ray tube exposes more massive parts of patients body radiation
  • CT x-ray detectors are less sensitive

Question 39

Question
CT exposes pateints to higher radiation doses compared to conventional roentgenography (x-ray imaging) because:
Answer
  • Anode voltage is higher
  • Multiple images are taken
  • Both A and B

Question 40

Question
Radionuclides used in "in vivo" radionuclide diagnostics are:
Answer
  • Alpha-radionuclides
  • Beta-radionuclides
  • Gamma-Radionuclides

Question 41

Question
What type of radioactivity is related to SPECT radionuclide diagnostics:
Answer
  • Beta
  • Alpha
  • Gamma

Question 42

Question
Alpha-rays are a beam of:
Answer
  • Electrons
  • Helium nuclei
  • Positrons

Question 43

Question
Radiopharmaceuticals are:
Answer
  • Contrast substances used in MRI
  • Contact gels used in ultrasound diagnostics
  • Chemical compounds containing radioactive isotopes

Question 44

Question
The following quantity participates in the law of radioactive decay:
Answer
  • Huddersfield unit (CT-number)
  • Index of refreaction n
  • Linear attenuation coefficient
  • Decay constant

Question 45

Question
Half-life T1/2 is defined as:
Answer
  • Energy of gamma-radiation
  • Probability of radioactive decay
  • The time it takes for radioactivity to be reduced by half.

Question 46

Question
Isomeric transition is a type of decay that changes:
Answer
  • The atomic number Z of the element
  • The energy of the nucleus
  • The mass number A of the nucleus

Question 47

Question
Radionuclides produced in generators have:
Answer
  • Long half-life T1/2
  • Short half-life T1/2
  • High energy gamma-radiation

Question 48

Question
Radionuclide generators contain:
Answer
  • Only gamma-radionuclides
  • A meta-stable mother radionuclide
  • A metastable daughter radionuclide
  • Mother (parents) and daughter radionuclides - metastable radionuclides

Question 49

Question
Radionuclides are:
Answer
  • Transformers of radiowaves
  • Radioactive nuclei
  • Ultrasound detectors

Question 50

Question
How does activity of a radio-pharmaceutical change after sterilization for intravenous application (sterilization time ignored):
Answer
  • Reduces abruptly due to chemical changes
  • Increases abruptly due to chemical changes
  • Remains unchanged

Question 51

Question
Radio-pharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine include:
Answer
  • Elements with radioactive nuclei
  • Transformers of infared rays
  • Sources of ultrasound

Question 52

Question
Radio-pharmaceuticals used for "in vivo" diagnostics contain radionuclides with the following mode of radioactivity:
Answer
  • Isometric Transition
  • Beta minus decay
  • Alpha decay

Question 53

Question
Time required for intial activity A0 for a radioactive source to decay to 10% is between:
Answer
  • 1 and 2 half-lives
  • 2 and 3 half-lives
  • 3 and 4 half-lives
  • 4 and 5 half-lives

Question 54

Question
The decay constant for 182TA is 0.006 day-1. Which is its half life:
Answer
  • 0.006 days
  • 83 days
  • 115 days
  • 167 days

Question 55

Question
The phenomenon of radioactivity is associated with:
Answer
  • Decay of atoms
  • Decay of nucleus
  • Fusion of nuclei
  • Emission of valence Orbital electrons

Question 56

Question
Electron capture involves:
Answer
  • An electron combining with a neutron
  • A neutron being ejected from the nucleus
  • An electron combining with a proton
  • An electron being ejected from the nucleus

Question 57

Question
In alpha decay:
Answer
  • Z and A are unchanged
  • Z decreases by 4 and A decreases by 2
  • Z decreases by 2 and A decreases by 4
  • Z decreases by 4 and A decreases

Question 58

Question
Isomeric transition involves:
Answer
  • The emission of a gamma-ray
  • The conversion of a neutron to a proton
  • The conversion of a proton to a neutron
  • Electron Capture

Question 59

Question
An alpha-particle consists of:
Answer
  • One proton and two neutron
  • Two proton and one neutron
  • Two proton and two neutron
  • One proton and One neutron

Question 60

Question
For pair production interactions it is true that:
Answer
  • Have no energy threshold
  • Occur near the electric field of the nucleus
  • Produce 1.022 MeV annihilation radiation
  • Are important in diagnostic radiology
  • All of the above

Question 61

Question
99Tc-m has a half-life t1/2 = 6h. What is the approximate value of 99tc-m decay constant:
Answer
  • 0.12 sec-1
  • 0.12 min-1
  • 0.12 hr-1

Question 62

Question
After 40 half-lives have elapsed, the activity A of radionuclide is equal to:
Answer
  • A0/40
  • A0/(2*40)
  • A0/(2 40)

Question 63

Question
Polonium-210 has a half-life of 4.5 months, and decays into the stable daughter isotope of lead-206. By measuring the proportion of polonium to lead in a sample, one can establiosh the production date of polonium. If the proportion is 1:15 (Po:Pb), how many months have elapsed since production date?
Answer
  • 3
  • 15
  • 18

Question 64

Question
What type of radiation can NOT be detected with scintillation detector?
Answer
  • Alpha particles
  • Beta Particles
  • Gamma Rays

Question 65

Question
Ionizing radiation used for "In vivo" radionuclide diagnostics:
Answer
  • Alpha and gamma radiation
  • Beta minus radiation
  • Gamma and annihilation radiation

Question 66

Question
Which quantity is NOT a parameter of radionuclides:
Answer
  • Activity A
  • Half-Life T1/2
  • Radiation yield
  • Decay constant

Question 67

Question
Activity A is a parameter of:
Answer
  • Laser radiation
  • Radionuclides
  • Radioactive sources

Question 68

Question
Why is technetium-99m (99mTC) preferred over iodine-131 (131-I) for thyroid gland diagnostics?
Answer
  • 99mTC is more cost-effective
  • 99mTC has fewer side effects
  • 99mTC is a "pure" gamma source and the radiation is orders of magnitude less
  • Natural deposits of 99mTC exists in some tissues

Question 69

Question
1987 an old radiotherapy source of cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30 years) was stolen from an abandoned hospital in the brazilian city of goiania. It was subsequently handled by many people, resulting in four deaths and 249 cases of high radiation exposure. If the activity of the source was 74TBq (Terebecquerels) in 1971, what was the activity in the time of the accident?
Answer
  • 51 TBq
  • 37 TBq
  • 30 TBq
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