Biology Winter Final Review Exam

LizzieWF
Quiz by LizzieWF, updated more than 1 year ago
LizzieWF
Created by LizzieWF almost 6 years ago
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Quiz on Biology Winter Final Review Exam, created by LizzieWF on 02/08/2015.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What factors cause genetic drift?
Answer
  • Natural disasters
  • Random mutation
  • Migration
  • The evolution of an allele from recessive to dominant

Question 2

Question
Gene flow is the flow of alleles into and out of a population over time
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
What are Darwin's three principles about how natural selection occurs?
Answer
  • Organisms inherit characteristics and traits from their parents and then produce their own offspring
  • Organisms will always mutate and bring new traits into the gene pool which are selected based on usefulness
  • Organisms produce more offspring than will ultimately survive
  • Organisms and offspring differ from each other because of the characteristics or variations they inherit

Question 4

Question
Harmful mutations are removed from the gene pool via
Answer
  • Natural selection
  • Organisms with those mutations are sterile
  • Genetic drift
  • Organisms with those mutations die before they can reproduce

Question 5

Question
If there is not enough variation in a species
Answer
  • Advantageous or rare traits and alleles vanish from the population
  • Genetic diversity goes down
  • More alleles are created in order to offset the lack of variation

Question 6

Question
In the eighteenth century, which men reintroduced ideas about the evolution of animals?
Answer
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  • Erasmus Darwin, Georges-Louis Leclerc, and Comte de Buffon
  • Erasmus Darwin and Charles Darwin
  • Erasmus Darwin and Alfred Wallace

Question 7

Question
What is Charles Darwin's theory?
Answer
  • Offspring inherit traits from their parents and offspring with the most advantageous traits will be more likely to survive and procreate
  • Offspring inherit traits from their parents and the offspring who reproduce less are less fit
  • Parents only pass on advantageous traits to their offspring, making natural selection a competition between the elite (in terms of genes)
  • Traits are neither advantageous or harmful, but are randomly passed down, similar to mutations

Question 8

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Divergent evolution is where two completely unrelated species develop similar traits
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

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Homologous structure
Answer
  • Corresponds to divergent evolution
  • Describes structures which are genetically related in two species who share a common ancestor

Question 10

Question
Analogous structure describes similar structures in two genetically unrelated organisms
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Check all boxes which are examples of mechanisms for genetic change
Answer
  • Blue eyes in humans being selected for 10,000 years ago
  • The mutation that causes sickle cell anemia
  • The migration of early hominids out of Africa
  • The elimination of rare alleles in Avida when the population gets too small

Question 12

Question
The Founder Effect describes why populations which were started by just a few organisms have decreased genetic diversity
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
Choose the best definition for fitness in an organism
Answer
  • How many kids a person has
  • The number of offspring an organism contributes to the next generation, compared with other individuals in its population
  • The number of years an organism lives divided by the number of offspring it is able to produce
  • The survival rate of an organism's offspring compared to the survival rate of others in its population

Question 14

Question
Population means all the organisms in a given species, even if they don't live in the same geographic area
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
Most genetic traits are simple (as opposed to complex)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
The cell's 3D printers are called
Answer
  • tRNA
  • Ribosomes
  • Helicase
  • Sequence of DNA nucleotides

Question 17

Question
Nucleotides
Answer
  • Are symbols of the cell's "software code"
  • Are represented by the letters A, U, G, and C in DNA
  • Provide the code for making amino acids
  • Substitute one of their letters when DNA transcribes mRNA

Question 18

Question
The mRNA nucleotides are determined by
Answer
  • The order of DNA nucleotides
  • The order in which they were transcribed
  • Random genetic mutation
  • The "flash-drives" of a cell

Question 19

Question
The Founder Effect
Answer
  • Explains why most Native Americans don't have type B blood
  • Is one cause of genetic drift
  • Is defined as a loss in genetic diversity which occurs when a population is started by a small number of individuals

Question 20

Question
The Bottleneck Effect
Answer
  • Explains why cheetahs are all essentially clones of one another
  • Describes the loss of genetic variation which occurs when a population's size decreases sharply over a generation
  • Is often used with and is similar to the Founder Effect
  • Explains why human beings aren't very genetically diverse
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