A&P II, Chpt 19

stnsf
Quiz by stnsf, updated more than 1 year ago
stnsf
Created by stnsf almost 7 years ago
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Description

Chapter 19: The Heart

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns blood to the heart?
Answer
  • Pulmonary trunk
  • Pulmonary circuit

Question 2

Question
Which side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood?
Answer
  • Right side
  • Both sides

Question 3

Question
To where in the body does the systemic circuit supply blood?
Answer
  • The organs
  • The arteries

Question 4

Question
What two major arteries return oxygen poor blood to the right side of the heart?
Answer
  • Pulmonary trunk and ciliac trunk
  • Superior and inferior vena cava

Question 5

Question
What cavity is the heart located in?
Answer
  • Thoracic cavity
  • Abdominopelvic cavity

Question 6

Question
What is located in the mediastinum, between the lungs and deep to the sternum?
Answer
  • The heart
  • The diaphragm

Question 7

Question
What is the bottom of the heart called?
Answer
  • Apex
  • Aorta

Question 8

Question
Also called the parietal pericardium, this is a fibrous layer of dense irregular CT and deep serous layer.
Answer
  • Pericardial sac
  • pericarial infarction

Question 9

Question
The epicardium (serous membrane on the external surface of the heart) is also called what?
Answer
  • Epicardial sac
  • Visceral pericardium

Question 10

Question
What is the space between the parietal and visceral membranes called?
Answer
  • Pericardial cavity
  • Pericarial sac

Question 11

Question
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
Answer
  • Epicardium, endocardium and pericardium
  • Epicardium, endocardium and myocardium

Question 12

Question
Folds in the plasma membrane that interlock cells are called what?
Answer
  • Interlocked discs
  • Intercalated folds

Question 13

Question
What is the function of a mechanical junction?
Answer
  • Tightly join cells and prevent them from pulling apart when they contract
  • Tightly join cells and help them break apart when they contract

Question 14

Question
Channels that allow ions to flow from the cytoplasm of one cell into the next are called what?
Answer
  • Electrical/gap junctions
  • Electric slide

Question 15

Question
Cardiocytes are right in what three things?
Answer
  • Myoglobin, glycogen and mitochondria
  • Myoglobin, glycogen and ATP

Question 16

Question
Collagen and elastic fibers that provide structural support, anchor cardiocytes and electrically insulate chambers are called the...
Answer
  • Fibrous skeleton
  • Fiber skeletal

Question 17

Question
Which receives blood returning to the heart by way of the great veins?
Answer
  • Atria
  • Ventricles

Question 18

Question
What is an auricle?
Answer
  • Ear-like extension, increases atrial volume
  • Wall that separates the atria

Question 19

Question
Which ejects blood into the arteries?
Answer
  • Atria
  • Ventricles

Question 20

Question
Groove that encircles the heart between the atria and ventricles and contains blood vessels...
Answer
  • Coronary AV sulcus
  • Interventricular sulci

Question 21

Question
Anterior and posterior grooves that overlie the IV septum and contains blood vessels...
Answer
  • Interventricular sulci
  • Interatrial sulci

Question 22

Question
Wall between the ventricles
Answer
  • Interatrial septum
  • Interventricular septum

Question 23

Question
What is the purpose of valves?
Answer
  • Ensure the one-way flow of blood
  • There is no purpose

Question 24

Question
Which valves regulate the opening between the atria and the ventricles?
Answer
  • Atrioventricular AV valves
  • Interventricular IV valves

Question 25

Question
The _____ connect valve cusps to papillary muscles, preventing flipping or bulging of the cusps
Answer
  • Tendons
  • Tendinous cords

Question 26

Question
Semilunar SL valves...
Answer
  • Regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles to the large arteries
  • Regulate the flow of blood from the lower limbs back to the heart

Question 27

Question
Which valve controls the opening from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk?
Answer
  • Pulmonary SL valve
  • Pulmonary trunk

Question 28

Question
Which valve controls the opening from the left ventricle into the aorta?
Answer
  • Aortic SL valve
  • Ventricular SL valve

Question 29

Question
Failure of a valve to prevent backwards flow of blood?
Answer
  • Valvular stenosis
  • Valve insufficiency

Question 30

Question
When the cusps are stiffened and the opening is constricted by scar tissue, this is called what?
Answer
  • Valvular stenosis
  • Valve insufficiency

Question 31

Question
Regurgitation of blood through and insufficient valve
Answer
  • Murmur
  • Mumble

Question 32

Question
What is mitral valve prolapse?
Answer
  • When the mitral valve closes before it's expected to
  • When one or more left AV valve cusps bulge into the atrium during ventricular contraction

Question 33

Question
What is the meaning of myogenic?
Answer
  • Signal originates within the heart
  • Signal targets the heart

Question 34

Question
Initiates each heartbeat and determines the heart rate
Answer
  • Sinoatrial SA node -- the pacemaker
  • Autorhythmic

Question 35

Question
Receives signal from the SA node and directs it to the ventricles
Answer
  • Antroventricular AV node
  • Atrioventricular AV bundle

Question 36

Question
Nervelike processes that arise from the ends of the bundle
Answer
  • Perkins fibers
  • Purkinje fibers

Question 37

Question
The _____ rhythm is the NORMAL heartbeat triggered by the SA node (70-80 bpm)
Answer
  • Sinus
  • Coronary

Question 38

Question
AV node takes over the heart rhythm is SA node is damaged, called the _____ rhythm
Answer
  • Nodal
  • Sinus

Question 39

Question
In the SA node, a slow inflow of Sodium (Na) causes gradual depolarization. This is called...
Answer
  • Pacemaker physiology
  • Pacemaker potential

Question 40

Question
When the pacemaker potential reaches threshold, _____ channels open and _____ flows in, producing rapid depolarization
Answer
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Potassium (K)

Question 41

Question
At peak, _____ channels open and _____ leaves the cell, causing repolarization
Answer
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Potassium (K)

Question 42

Question
Once the potassium channels close, what happens to the pacemaker potential?
Answer
  • Nothing
  • It starts over

Question 43

Question
An ECG or electrocardiogram is a composite recording of what?
Answer
  • All the action potential produced by the heart
  • The German spelling

Question 44

Question
A pressure difference between two points causes a fluid to flow from _____ pressure to _____ pressure (pressure gradient)
Answer
  • High; Low
  • Low; High

Question 45

Question
What are the four phases of the cardiac cycle?
Answer
  • -Ventricular filling -Isovolumetric contraction -Ventricular ejection -Isovolumetric relaxation
  • -Ventricles fill -Blood stays -Ventricles eject -Blood leaves

Question 46

Question
The amount of blood ejected by each ventricle in ONE minute
Answer
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiac output

Question 47

Question
WHAT increases both heart rate and stroke volume?
Answer
  • McDonalds
  • Exercise

Question 48

Question
Resting heart rate ABOVE 100 bpm; resting heart rate BELOW 60 bpm
Answer
  • Tachycardia; Bradycardia
  • Bradycardia, Tachycardia

Question 49

Question
Where are the cardiac centers located?
Answer
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Medullary

Question 50

Question
What is the cardiostimulatory effect?
Answer
  • Stimulation of the cardiac muscle
  • Transmission of signals by way of the SNS to the SA node, AV node and myocardium to speed up the HR

Question 51

Question
What is the cardioinhibitory effect?
Answer
  • Stopping the heart
  • Transmission of signals by way of the vagus nerve to the SA and AV nodes to slow the HR

Question 52

Question
Which receptors send signals to the medulla in response to bp changes?
Answer
  • Baro
  • Chemo

Question 53

Question
Which receptors send signals to the medulla in response to increase CO2, H or O2 to increase HR?
Answer
  • Chem
  • Baro

Question 54

Question
Hyperkalemia is what?
Answer
  • Too much potassium in the blood
  • Too little potassium in the blood

Question 55

Question
Hypocalcemia is what?
Answer
  • Too little calcium in the blood
  • Too much calcium in the blood
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