catherine.boynto
Quiz by , created over 4 years ago

Quiz on FS Exam, created by catherine.boynto on 02/21/2015.

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catherine.boynto
Created by catherine.boynto over 4 years ago
Family Therapy
Stephanie Walker
Family Therapy 1 Midterm
catherine.boynto
Theories of Schizophrenia and Treatments
cecollier
GCSE PE - 6
lydia_ward
GCSE French - The Environment
Abby B
Family Systems Vocab 3/31
catherine.boynto
Family Systems Vocab 3/24
catherine.boynto
Family Systems Vocabulary 4
catherine.boynto
Family Systems Vocabulary 1
catherine.boynto
Family Systems Vocabulary 2
catherine.boynto

Question 1

Question
The focus of conflict theory is on social structures or what has been called the __________ level.
Answer
  • Micro
  • Meso
  • Macro
  • Mini

Question 2

Question
According to consensus theory what notion is the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?
Answer
  • Evolution
  • Nonsummativity
  • Function
  • Conflict

Question 3

Question
What theory assumes the equivalence of humans with other species?
Answer
  • Behaviorism
  • Consensus
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Conflict

Question 4

Question
What philosopher began the notion of nonsummantivity?
Answer
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Aries

Question 5

Question
In a wholes view, _______ means making cuts or divisions such that relational wholes are retained.
Answer
  • Content
  • Context
  • Nonsummativity
  • Units

Question 6

Question
According to Hanson what is the single most significant idea in the wholes approach?
Answer
  • Context
  • Wholes
  • Parts
  • Theories

Question 7

Question
Once people being to ______ the strictures of conventional theory and science a new way of seeing things emerges that helps to capture things that remain just outside the grips of conventional viewing lenses.
Answer
  • Learn
  • Unlearn
  • Speak
  • Break

Question 8

Question
What television show is Hanson’s favorite example for nonsummativity?
Answer
  • Wheel of Fortune
  • The Addams Family
  • The Newly Wed Game
  • The Price is Right

Question 9

Question
Pavlov’s experiment on dogs concluded that learning was________
Answer
  • Conditioned
  • Intuitive
  • Hard
  • Inevitable

Question 10

Question
Wiener picked this term to name the observed ability of systems to steer themselves.
Answer
  • After there after because
  • Causality
  • Effectiveness
  • Cybernetics

Question 11

Question
Because everything is related to everything in a system, there is no such thing as an ________ without causal status.
Answer
  • Equifinality
  • Cause and Effect
  • Inaction or Action
  • Accommodation

Question 12

Question
What refers to the phenomena of interests that are a cooperative, or joint, creation?
Answer
  • Co-emmergence
  • Alliance
  • Existence
  • Causality

Question 13

Question
The key to understanding change is to see it as having both components of what changes and what stays the same rather than just ______ alone.
Answer
  • Understanding
  • Change
  • Emergence
  • Causality

Question 14

Question
What refers to the ability of a system to reintroduce output to input?
Answer
  • Multifinality
  • Circularity
  • Feedback
  • Effect

Question 15

Question
What feedback refers to a feedback where there is change?
Answer
  • Equal Feedback
  • Negative Feedback
  • Positive Feedback
  • Neutral Feedback

Question 16

Question
In general, the continuity of a system is served by____________ feedback.
Answer
  • Both Positive and Negative
  • Only Negative
  • Only Positive
  • Mainly Positive

Question 17

Question
What refers to the idea that you can get a number of different results from the same stimuli?
Answer
  • Multifinality
  • Equifinality
  • Equipotentiality
  • Multiprocess

Question 18

Question
What is a specific type of output that is driven by other processes of emotion and communication?
Answer
  • Content
  • Contextual
  • Concepts
  • Subcommunication

Question 19

Question
Emotions as an overriding characteristic of human groups renders the causal position of content _________?
Answer
  • Obsolete
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Unimportant

Question 20

Question
People act not on objects, but rather on the _______ objects have for them?
Answer
  • Understanding
  • Meaning
  • Feeling
  • Belief

Question 21

Question
The two principle lines of thought that can be woven into a wholes approach to meaning are symbolic interactionism and ________ thought.
Answer
  • Causal
  • Provocative
  • Expressionist
  • Constructivist

Question 22

Question
What captures the notion that because meaning is specific to context, systems of logic are parallel?
Answer
  • Parallogic
  • Characteristic
  • Nonsummativity
  • Content

Question 23

Question
Hanson takes the definition of _______ as information in the broadest possible sense in order to allow for a broad range of kinds of information exchange in various systems.
Answer
  • Understanding
  • Communication
  • Meaning
  • Reality

Question 24

Question
Report is pure information, while ________ is how to interpret this information.
Answer
  • Command
  • Demand
  • Meaning
  • Parallogic

Question 25

Question
According to Hanson there is no such thing as no __________.
Answer
  • Love
  • Caring
  • Communication
  • Dialogue

Question 26

Question
A situation that is inherently contradictory, intense and inescapable.
Answer
  • Relationship
  • Obligation
  • Paradox
  • Double-bind

Question 27

Question
What denotes the author’s reference to emotion as a characteristic of human groups that is above or beyond rationality?
Answer
  • Rational
  • Suprarationality
  • Nonsummativity
  • Irrational

Question 28

Question
The concept of suprarationality has four components that place emotion above and beyond rationality are equifinality & multifinality, cybernetics, context, and _________.
Answer
  • Content
  • Love
  • Need
  • Centrality

Question 29

Question
Which kind of emotions are considered we-emotions?
Answer
  • High-order emotions
  • Context-level emotions
  • Linear emotions
  • Circular emotions

Question 30

Question
Emotions can be thought of as overriding various forms of human behavior, an on/off or circuit interrupter switch that may forestall or amplify all other processes. This is because emotions are considered ____________.
Answer
  • Suprarationality
  • Linear
  • Nonlinear
  • Higher Order

Question 31

Question
Changing a product in social process via policy can only be effective if a _________ approach is used.
Answer
  • Categorizing
  • Problems
  • Wholes
  • Self-regulating

Question 32

Question
What is thought of as refinement of theory?
Answer
  • Science
  • Philosophy
  • Mathematics
  • Multiverse

Question 33

Question
It is possible that during the _________ the desire to move science away from deity led to the denial or discard of emotions.
Answer
  • Context
  • Enlightenment
  • Subjectivity
  • Understanding

Question 34

Question
The issue of meaning in the science of human groups involves approximation ___________meaning sets.
Answer
  • Context Specific
  • Data
  • Sequence
  • Time

Question 35

Question
What refers to the number of different kinds of information that become data?
Answer
  • Decoding
  • Range
  • Units
  • Meaning

Question 36

Question
Wholes or general systems theory approach is considered _____________ in that it can be applied across many disciplines to consider any form of substantive issue where there are two or more related parts, such as biology, computer science, family therapy, medicine, or psychology.
Answer
  • Pan-systemic
  • Pan-disciplinary
  • Pandemic
  • Interrelated

Question 37

Question
A theory which focuses on social structures and assumes people are pitted against one another in the struggle to get resources is ___________________.
Answer
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Carol Mark's Conflict Theory
  • Marx's Social Conflict Theory
  • General Systems Theory

Question 38

Question
The focus of conflict theory is at the __________ level, whereas the focus of symbolic interactionism on the everyday life of face-to-face interaction in human groups is at the __________ level.
Answer
  • Micro, Macro
  • Subjective, Objective
  • Personal, Business
  • Macro, Micro

Question 39

Question
Nonsummativity is a concept encouraging therapists to ____________.
Answer
  • View the family as a whole and not as collection of individuals
  • Consider the individual instead of the whole family
  • The whole is less than or equal to its parts
  • View the family and the individuals in the family

Question 40

Question
Tammy is a 2-year-old girl who has begun to potty train. Each time Tammy successfully uses her potty, her mom does the potty dance to celebrate with her, gives her a high five, and a sticker, which Tammy finds both amusing and fun. This is an example of ________________.
Answer
  • B. F. Skinner's Behaviorism
  • Positive Feedback
  • Negative Feedback
  • Negative Reinforcement

Question 41

Question
Hanson equivocates trying to figure out the whole world by taking it apart into components is like trying to unscramble eggs. Her goal is to illustrate ____________.
Answer
  • Things emerge when two parts act together that are not necessarily seen in those parts alone
  • The importance of relationship and the way we interact with others
  • Who or what to blame when problems arises
  • The importance of looking at patterns within each individual

Question 42

Question
The idea of nonsummativity implies that ______________.
Answer
  • Relational patterns in human systems are always known to the individual
  • Relational patterns in human systems are not always known to the individual
  • The way humans interact is subconscious
  • None of the above

Question 43

Question
Change in one part of the system _____________.
Answer
  • Changes all parts of the system
  • Changes the individual
  • Is not related to other parts of the system
  • Results in unbalancing

Question 44

Question
Two or more parts related or interconnected such that change in any one part changes all parts is known as ___________.
Answer
  • A system
  • A feedback loop
  • Circular causality
  • Nonsummativity

Question 45

Question
Unprotected sex resulting in pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection is an example of ________________.
Answer
  • Cause and effect
  • Action and inaction
  • Irresponsibility
  • Consequences

Question 46

Question
A true systems thinker recognizes the importance of discarding ______________ as a target of analysis.
Answer
  • Change
  • Blame
  • Problems
  • Content

Question 47

Question
The classic example utilized to demonstrate both positive and negative feedback is the _____________.
Answer
  • Air compressor
  • Thermostat
  • Television
  • Camera

Question 48

Question
Getting the same result from a variety of stimuli is ______________.
Answer
  • Equifinality
  • Linear causality
  • Equipotentiality
  • Circular causality

Question 49

Question
Because time is linked to a notion of equifinal and multifinal results, there is a means to move models of potential effects (intended or unintended) through________ time frames.
Answer
  • Long-term or extended
  • Short-term
  • Cross-sectionally
  • Immediately

Question 50

Question
The issue of content is simultaneously an issue of ___________.
Answer
  • Meaning
  • Causality
  • Context
  • Cybernetics

Question 51

Question
Context does not need to be in any fixed causal position because content is ________.
Answer
  • An emotional characteristic of human groups rendering causal position of content secondary
  • Co-emergent, meaning, certain things exist as a joint production, simultaneously
  • Getting the same results from one stimuli from acting on a system
  • The inability to gauge the effects based on knowledge or input alone

Question 52

Question
Humans are not just considered simple stimulus – response of input - output relays, they are ________, capable of refracting and interpreting, any objective stimuli.
Answer
  • Meaning Making beings
  • Black Box beings
  • Black or White
  • Purpose Driven

Question 53

Question
___________ captures the notion that because meaning is specific to context, systems of logic are __________.
Answer
  • Parallogic; perpendicular
  • Parallogical; logical
  • Paraplegic; parallel
  • Parallogic; parallel

Question 54

Question
Attention to report and command spawned the theory that ___________ between these two aspect of communication could contribute to the origins of _________.
Answer
  • Separation; mental health
  • Disjunctures; mental illness
  • Connection; mental illness
  • Conjunctures; mental health

Question 55

Question
_________________ is a form of emotional pattern of uneven corrections; whereas ________________ reflects context, where emotional connections are wide open and shared equally.
Answer
  • Definitional equality; definitional deficit
  • Definitional deficit; definitional equality
  • Content; context
  • Suprarationality; rationality

Question 56

Question
How information fits into theories is best known as ______________.
Answer
  • Validity
  • Data
  • Decoding
  • Constructs

Question 57

Question
According to Hanson, how are science and theory related within a wholes approach?
Answer
  • Science can be thought of as refinement and theory, and refinement depends on the theory in question.
  • Science in its simplest form is not necessarily equivalent to logical positivism.
  • Science within the within a wholes approach requires rethinking the basis of knowledge and finding proof at each turn.
  • All of the above

Question 58

Question
Using language such as “human experience, contexts, and wisdoms” means speaking in terms of ____________.
Answer
  • Subjectivity
  • Universe
  • Wholes
  • Multiverse

Question 59

Question
The task of _______ is to dig into the unconscious and release pent up frustration and self-disgust by hypnotizing or looking at the dreams of the patient, or analysand.
Answer
  • Epistemological shift
  • Social Theory
  • Behaviorism
  • Psychoanalysis

Question 60

Question
______ are ideas, often abstractions, which are developed in order to explain something such that you can move from the general.
Answer
  • Feedback
  • Concepts
  • Cybernetics
  • Process

Question 61

Question
A ______ can be defined as any two or more parts that are related, such that change in any one part changes all parts.
Answer
  • System
  • Part
  • Unit
  • Content

Question 62

Question
What refers to the inference of relationships between things such that the combination brings about a result?
Answer
  • Principle
  • Nonsummativity
  • Causality
  • Unit

Question 63

Question
What is a situation that is inherently contradictory, intense, and inescapable?
Answer
  • Command
  • Report
  • Cybernetic
  • Double-bind

Question 64

Question
Consensus Theory has 3 central notions which of the following is NOT one of them?
Answer
  • Nonsummativity
  • Asymmetry
  • Evolution
  • Function

Question 65

Question
Conflict Theory has its roots in the work of?
Answer
  • Herbert Spencer
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Karl Marx
  • Emile Durkheim

Question 66

Question
Humans behave in accordance with how they are trained by a series of rewards and punishments is an idea from which theory?
Answer
  • Behaviorism
  • Conflict Theory
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Consensus Theory

Question 67

Question
___________ refers to how we divide up the world in order to study it
Answer
  • unit
  • context
  • nonsummativity
  • system

Question 68

Question
_____________ refers to the phenomena of interest that are cooperative, or joint, creation.
Answer
  • action and inaction
  • co-emergence
  • system
  • unit

Question 69

Question
“Damned if you do, damned if you don’t” sums up the principal of?
Answer
  • co-emergence
  • double-bind
  • action and inaction
  • paradox

Question 70

Question
Never changing and always changing are potentially equally destructive?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 71

Question
Humans interpret and create a world of _________ that mediates all behavior
Answer
  • emotion
  • meaning
  • communication
  • content

Question 72

Question
Gestures, voice tone and sequence are all example of?
Answer
  • report
  • command
  • feedback
  • emotion

Question 73

Question
The central features of emotion include?
Answer
  • higher order
  • nonlinear
  • equifinal or multifinal
  • all of the above

Question 74

Question
Observing pieces one after another, rather than at separated time points and inferring the linkages refers to?
Answer
  • unit
  • data
  • sequence
  • range

Question 75

Question
A higher order, overarching, characteristic of human groups that can be seen as a characteristic of relationships rather than individuals is speaking about?
Answer
  • meaning
  • emotion
  • communication
  • feedback

Question 76

Question
Which is an example of co-emergence?
Answer
  • Children on a seesaw
  • The Prisoner's Dilemma
  • Clapping
  • All of the above

Question 77

Question
Which is an example of positive feedback?
Answer
  • A man loses his job and begins drinking
  • A child who works with a tutor and does not improve his grades
  • A person who is told to lose weight but does not lose a single pound
  • None of the above

Question 78

Question
To capture the idea that there is information exchanged that lets participants know how to interpret information is the definition for ____________.
Answer
  • Theory of Behaviorism
  • Theory of Patterns
  • Theory of Metacommunication
  • Theory of Psychoanalysis

Question 79

Question
What does Hanson say is central to human behavior?
Answer
  • Communication
  • Emotion
  • Logic
  • Linearity

Question 80

Question
What model allows for emergent contextual emotion?
Answer
  • Model of Irrationality
  • Model of Subjectivity
  • Model of Suprarationality
  • None of the above

Question 81

Question
A _________________science is one where impressions, constructions, and interpretations become the front and center focus of inquiry, rather than bias or noise to be drilled out.
Answer
  • Objective
  • Naturalistic
  • Subjective
  • Social

Question 82

Question
The consensus theory follows the assumption that:
Answer
  • Humans are intrinsically noble
  • Humans are intrinsically greedy and insatiable
  • Humans are intrinsically motivated to do good
  • Humans are extrinsically instructed to be greedy and insatiable

Question 83

Question
Conflict Theory focuses on all the following except:
Answer
  • White vs. Black
  • The haves vs. the have nots
  • owners vs. workers
  • bourgeois vs. proletariat

Question 84

Question
In nonsummativity it is important to look at ___________.
Answer
  • What's going on with an individual
  • Patterns that exist between individuals
  • The dynamics of a group, such as race and gender
  • How parts fit together

Question 85

Question
In a causal system, which two are always present?
Answer
  • Action and inaction
  • Report and command
  • Equifinality and multifinality
  • None of the above

Question 86

Question
Hanson believes change is achieved by:
Answer
  • report and command
  • content and context
  • reward and punishment
  • feedback

Question 87

Question
The double bind concept draws on the concept of _____________ and ______________.
Answer
  • positive and negative feedback
  • report and command
  • action and inaction
  • none of the above

Question 88

Question
Sigmund Freud posited a tripartite model of human nature, all of these are part of Freud's model except_______.
Answer
  • Id
  • Ego
  • Superego
  • Intimacy

Question 89

Question
In Pavlov’s experiment with dog’s what was the stimulus and reaction?
Answer
  • food, salivation
  • vibration, sitting down
  • yelling, salivation
  • bell, salivation

Question 90

Question
The two principle lines of thought that can be woven into a wholes approach to meaning are __________.
Answer
  • structural conditions and structural analysis
  • origin and complications
  • symbolic interaction and constructivist thought
  • symbolic interaction and family

Question 91

Question
Micro is to___________________ as Macro is to_____________________
Answer
  • objective, subjective
  • subjective, objective
  • individual, societal
  • universal, particular

Question 92

Question
The conventional theories approach is formed on assumption(s), where as the wholes approach focuses on __________.
Answer
  • single point departure
  • patterned redundancies
  • acceptance of the assumptions
  • politics

Question 93

Question
Historically research divides the research variables to “understand” particular phenomena, how does the wholes approach respond to this idea.
Answer
  • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, we cannot sum parts to find whole
  • Dividing into units allows us to further understand social phenomena
  • Studying individuals is a great predictor of the universal
  • Assuming the universal and working towards nonmotheic is optimal

Question 94

Question
Neglect of the wholes leads to____________.
Answer
  • optimal data collection
  • a reliable universality
  • missing relational patterns
  • legitimacy of all units and explaining their particularity

Question 95

Question
Statistical techniques are lacking in our field for analyzing _____________data.
Answer
  • relational
  • variable
  • unit
  • nomoethic

Question 96

Question
A direct cause and effect relationship between stimulus and response is inferred by what type of causality?
Answer
  • cybernetic
  • circular
  • relational
  • linear

Question 97

Question
Multiple expressions for snow like “corn”, “powder”, “boilerplate”, “manmade” and “corduroy” is an example of how human groups have capability of developing ____________.
Answer
  • symbolic interactionism
  • constructivist thought
  • symbolism
  • shared meaning

Question 98

Question
A parallogical view offers that while there is no single point, there are points, this is an idea that contradicts _____________.
Answer
  • multiverse
  • meaning patterns
  • universals
  • conventional meaning

Question 99

Question
The concept of ______________ discards the notion that there is such thing as mental heath or illness, instead focus becomes on why one person instead of another is taken as sick under like conditions.
Answer
  • reality
  • realities
  • content
  • universality

Question 100

Question
Cybernetic causality infers that no communication is communication.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 101

Question
“You look so pretty, no one will notice how much weight you have gained.”
Answer
  • report and command
  • not-not communicating
  • symbolic interactionism
  • double-bind

Question 102

Question
The idea that emotion can override various forms of human behavior.
Answer
  • nonlinear
  • context-level emotion
  • sexism
  • higher order

Question 103

Question
Symbolic interactionism begins with the idea that people are what?
Answer
  • objective
  • subjective
  • creative and reflexive
  • judgemental

Question 104

Question
Blame is not compatible with general systems theory because it involves _______ thinking rather than circular.
Answer
  • individual
  • process
  • linear
  • all of the above

Question 105

Question
_______ is the ability of a system to reintroduce output as input in order to maintain homeostasis.
Answer
  • regulation
  • feedback
  • change
  • cybernetics

Question 106

Question
Emotion is different from meaning and communication because it is _________.
Answer
  • nonlinear
  • linear
  • subjective
  • circular

Question 107

Question
_________ is significant for theory and is founded in the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. For example: Two men buy their wives chocolate treats for Valentine’s Day. The first wife thinks her husband is being sweet and thoughtful. The second wife gets mad because she is on a diet and thinks her husband is not supporting her while she’s trying to lose weight. Although both husbands did the same thing, they each received different reactions because the _______ is different.
Answer
  • feedback
  • context
  • variables
  • content

Question 108

Question
A married couple starts arguing because she nags and presses. The husband then withdraws. As he withdraws, she nags and pushes him harder. Both enter into a “seesaw” pattern that can only continue if they both play. When looking at the course of this couple’s communication and behavior pattern, which of the following terms comes into play?
Answer
  • feedback
  • action and inaction
  • punctuation
  • change

Question 109

Question
A husband comes home to his wife cooking meatloaf for dinner. He goes wild and beats her up, but then apologizes while crying hysterically. A model of _____ would look long range at the patterned cycles of emotional reactions between the spouses that were redundant, hence amiable to analysis. According to this model, both spouses may recognize that a recent loss of employment may have caused tension leading to the dissipation.
Answer
  • suprarationality
  • irrationality
  • emotion
  • communication

Question 110

Question
Before a situation can be changed what needs to be identified?
Answer
  • reason
  • solution
  • cause
  • effect

Question 111

Question
What expresses the idea that when you act on a system of interrelated parts, you cannot gauge the effects based on knowledge of the input alone.
Answer
  • Multifinality
  • Feedback
  • Equifinality
  • A and C

Question 112

Question
Which is an example of noncommunication?
Answer
  • Teenage girl ignores her parents because she isn’t allowed to go to a party.
  • A wife and husband sit across from each other without speaking with their arms crossed.
  • Two strangers standing in line at the coffee shop.
  • There is no such thing as noncommunication.

Question 113

Question
Which famous scholar did extensive work around the nature-nurture debate with ducks?
Answer
  • Konrad Lorenz
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Erving Goffman
  • W. F. Whyte

Question 114

Question
Who concluded that learning is conditioned?
Answer
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Jean Piaget
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Sigmund Freud

Question 115

Question
A double bind is a situation that is inherently not which of the following?
Answer
  • Contradictory
  • Intense
  • Irresolvable
  • Inescapable

Question 116

Question
Which of the following is not viewed as co-emergent?
Answer
  • Communication
  • Words
  • Meanings
  • Thoughts

Question 117

Question
What is thought of as the refinement of theory?
Answer
  • Science
  • Positivism
  • Multiverse
  • Subjectivity

Question 118

Question
The connection to a baby sucking on his hands and having an oral fixation in adulthood is in relation to ___________________ theory?
Answer
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Consensus
  • Behaviorism
  • Conflict

Question 119

Question
What is the main idea of the wholes approach in connection with theories?
Answer
  • Following the assumptions of theory leads to the correct answer
  • Never look at the big picture
  • Looking beyond cause and effect gives way to new meaning
  • Theories are always concrete

Question 120

Question
The concept of context should be viewed in all of the following except ___________.
Answer
  • in relationships
  • with others
  • in concert
  • individually

Question 121

Question
Using language like “human experience” rather than “the world” are thinking in the contexts of ______________________.
Answer
  • multiverse
  • universe
  • local
  • global

Question 122

Question
Cybernetics is the study of the self-regulating properties of systems. The word “cyber” is derived from ___________, which reflects the notion of steering.
Answer
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Arabic
  • Hebrew

Question 123

Question
In analysis based in a wholes approach, the relational unit is never broken down past the minimum of ______ interrelated parts.
Answer
  • one
  • two
  • three
  • four

Question 124

Question
According to Hanson, blame is incompatible with general systems theory approach in that it violates the principle of ________.
Answer
  • cybernetics
  • nonsummativity
  • multifinality
  • equifinality

Question 125

Question
A wholes approach stresses that _______ is not singular and universal, but subjective and context dependent.
Answer
  • reality
  • meaning
  • content
  • change

Question 126

Question
Hanson’s stressing of the need for finding a way rather than the way reflects the concept of ________ rather than _______.
Answer
  • multiverse; universe
  • universe; multiverse
  • rationality; suprarationality
  • suprarationality; rationality

Question 127

Question
Which theorist believes humans are driven by subconscious desires?
Answer
  • Sigmund Freud
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Herbert Spencer

Question 128

Question
The idea that patterns of relationships are at the heart of individual problems such as eating disorders or abuse is an example of:
Answer
  • summativity
  • nonsummativity
  • cybernetics
  • units

Question 129

Question
How does the wholes approach define causality?
Answer
  • Direct linear relationship between cause and effect
  • There are no differentiating characteristics mediating cause and effect
  • Cybernetic patterns that are interactive and continuous
  • Cause and effect are finite

Question 130

Question
Which example best fits the concept of multifinality?
Answer
  • The death of a parent leading to different reactions among children
  • Many different factors that lead to developing a drug addiction
  • Lack of energy in result of depression
  • Fear of eating in public from disordered eating

Question 131

Question
Which example best fits the concept of equifinality?
Answer
  • Consequences of malnutrition from anorexia
  • The death of a family member leading to various coping efforts
  • Many different factors that lead to developing a drug addiction
  • Lack of energy in result of depression

Question 132

Question
Alice has been dating her boyfriend for two months and has waited patiently for him to kiss her. Finally, after Algebra class, he kisses her on the cheek. She walks to her locker in a blissful haze and cannot remember her combination. This is an example of what type of emotion?
Answer
  • context level
  • higher order
  • nonlinear
  • equifinality

Question 133

Question
When observing sequence in an intimate relationship, face-to-face interaction will be:
Answer
  • action-inferring-responses-acting
  • phrases-responses-reactions-actions
  • actions-responses-phrases
  • phrases-inferring-responses-narratives

Question 134

Question
Reality is _____, meaning is _______, and therefore context is _____?
Answer
  • Objective; Subjective; Specific
  • Subjective; Specific; Objective
  • Specific; Objective; Objective
  • Objective; Specific; Subjective

Question 135

Question
Comparing Hanson’s two concepts “Realities” and “Parallogic” all are similarities except?
Answer
  • Thinking in terms of “a way” instead of “the way”
  • Dismissing the linear way of thinking
  • Focusing on human subjectivity
  • Viewing situations as context-specific rather than universal

Question 136

Question
How would Hanson best describe “Black Box Humans” compared to “Meaning Model Humans”?
Answer
  • Meaning model human beings are reflective and creative in the sense of being able to refract and interpret any given objective stimuli, whereas black box humans have a simple stimulus-response and simple input-out relay.
  • Black box humans have complex stimulus response whereas Meaning Model Humans have simple stimulus responses
  • Black Box Humans Process and are able to self-reflect and interpret whereas Meaning making humans are not
  • Meaning model humans aren’t able to process output relays whereas Black Box Humans are

Question 137

Question
All of these are tools that can be used to understand general systems theory approach except?
Answer
  • data
  • decoding
  • range
  • theories

Question 138

Question
__________ reflects contexts where emotional connections are wide open and shared equally.
Answer
  • Definitional deficit
  • Definitional equality
  • Suprarationality
  • Multifinality

Question 139

Question
Shortages in terms of emotional connections being translated into surface patterns are considered patterns of uneven connections or __________.
Answer
  • Definitional deficit
  • Definitional equality
  • Equifinality
  • Multifinality

Question 140

Question
In a parallogic view, what must be done before judging an event or situation?
Answer
  • Ignore factors such as age, race, gender, and illness
  • Assume there is a gap between the observer and the event or situation
  • Think about the event or situation in its native context
  • Make sure that you are thinking independently of context

Question 141

Question
What two kinds of behavioral data does Hanson believe are “relevant to the conception of realities and a multiverse?”
Answer
  • Actual and reported behavior
  • Real and imagined behavior
  • Positive and negative behavior
  • Emotional and physical behavior