Ontological Argument A Level Edexcel

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Quiz by , created over 4 years ago

Revision Quiz on the topic Ontological Argument from Unit 3 Philosophy in A2 Religious Studies Edexcel.

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fstok
Created by fstok over 4 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Who created the Ontological Argument?
Answer
  • Aquinas
  • Hume
  • Pseudo-Dionysus
  • Anselm
  • Plantinga

Question 2

Question
What is the nature of the Ontological Argument?
Answer
  • a posteriori
  • a priori
  • inductive
  • deductive
  • based on experience
  • based on logical reasoning

Question 3

Question
Anselm's definition of God is "that than which no greater can be conceived" (TTWNGCBC)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
Why is Anselm's definition of God (TTWNGCBC) an important feature of the Ontological Argument?
Answer
  • It is the foundation for Anselm's argument
  • It supports Anselm's Proslogian 2 and 3

Question 5

Question
What does TTWNGCBC tell us about God?
Answer
  • God is supremely perfect
  • God has greater "ontos"
  • God is invisible
  • God has magical powers

Question 6

Question
Explain Proslogian 2.
Answer
  • Proslogian 2 supports the existence of God by arguing that if something could exist in the mind or in the mind and reality, then it would be greater in the mind (in intellectu) and in reality (in re). The Painter Analogy is used to demonstrate this since no matter how great a painting is in the Painter's mind, the painting on the canvas, in reality, will always be greater. This can be applied to God. If God is TTWNGCBC, then by definition God must exist in the mind and in reality, since that is the greatest option and God has the greatest "ontos" (being). Therefore, God exists.
  • Proslogian 2 supports the existence of God by arguing that if something could exist in the mind (in intellectu) or in reality, then it would be greater in reality (in re). The Painter Analogy is used to demonstrate this since no matter how great a painting is in the Painter's mind, the painting on the canvas, in reality, will always be greater. This can be applied to God. If God is TTWNGCBC, then by definition God must exist in reality, since that is the greatest option and God has the greatest "ontos" (being). Therefore, God exists.
  • Proslogian 2 supports the existence of God by arguing that if something could be necessary (independent) or contingent (dependent), then it would be greater to be necessary. Since God, by definition is supremely perfect, he must be necessary since this is the greatest option. Therefore, God exists.

Question 7

Question
Explain Proslogian 3.
Answer
  • Proslogian 3 argues that if something could be contingent (dependent) or necessary (independent), then it would be greater to be necessary. Since God, by definition, is greater than anything that can be conceived, he must be necessary. Therefore, God must have necessary existence.
  • Proslogian 3 argues that if something could exist in reality or in the mind, then it would be greater in reality. Since God is TTWNGCBC, he must exist in reality. Therefore, God must exist.
  • Proslogian 3 argues that if something could be contingent (dependent) or necessary (independent), then it would be greater to be contingent. Since God, by definition, is supremely perfect, he must be contingent since that is the greater option. Therefore, God must have contingent existence.

Question 8

Question
Anselm's conclusion is "reductio ad absurdum" (reduce to absurdity), showing that to reject God's existence is illogical.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
What does Psalm 14:1 say?
Answer
  • "The fool has said in his heart 'There is no God'"
  • "The fool has said in his heart 'There is a God'"
  • "The fool has said 'There is no God'"
  • "The fool in his heart has said 'There is a God'"
  • "The fool in his heart has said 'There is no God'"

Question 10

Question
Aquinas developed Anselm's Ontological Argument.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Explain Descartes' development.
Answer
  • Descartes adds necessary existence to the list of God's perfections. Necessary existence is a predicate.
  • Descartes adds contingent existence to the list of God's perfections. Contingent existence is a predicate.
  • To define a perfect being without existence would mean that it wasn't perfect. Since God has all perfections, he must also exist.
  • If there were an infinite number of possible worlds, God would have to exist in one. Since God is supremely perfect, by definition, if he exists in one, he would exist in all possible worlds. Therefore, God must exist.
  • Triangle analogy: Just as three sides are the predicates of a triangle, so existence is a predicate of God's definition as a perfect being.
  • Painter analogy: A painting on the canvas, in reality, will always be greater than a painting in the mind. Similarly, by definition, God must exist in reality and the mind, since he is supremely perfect.

Question 12

Question
Explain Malcolm's development.
Answer
  • Supports Descartes' development.
  • Doesn't support Descartes' development.
  • It would be meaningless for a supremely perfect being not to exist. Since God has all perfections, he must exist. It would be logically contradictory otherwise.
  • God has all perfections and therefore, must have contingent existence. It would be logically contradictory for God not to have contingent existence.
  • If God could exist, he would exist by definition.
  • If God could exist, he wouldn't exist by definition.

Question 13

Question
Tick the two criticisms put forward by Kant.
Answer
  • The Ontological Argument commits a syllogism.
  • The Ontological Argument confuses an 'existence is' with a 'defining is'. This is logically invalid
  • We don't have to accept the definition.
  • Existence is not a predicate.
  • Existence is a predicate.

Question 14

Question
Russel criticises the Ontological Argument for making existence into an intention (a concept put forward by a set of predicates) when it should be an extension (an optional defining characteristic).
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
The Ontological Argument doesn't commit a syllogism (logically correct but factually wrong), according to Russell
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
An example of a syllogism is: all men exist, Santa is a man, therefore Santa exists.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
Explain Davies' criticism.
Answer
  • The Ontological Argument confuses an 'existence is' for a 'defining is'. This is logically invalid.
  • The Ontological Argument commits a syllogism.
  • The Ontological Argument is undermined if we don't accept the definition.

Question 18

Question
Explain Plantinga's development.
Answer
  • Uses theoretical physics to suggest that if there are an infinite number of worlds, than God must exist in one.
  • Doesn't use theoretical physics, uses quantum physics.
  • If God exists in one world, by definition, he must exist in all worlds because he is supremely perfect.
  • God is a being of "maximal greatness" and therefore, must exist in all worlds
  • God must have contingent existence because he is a being of "maximal greatness"

Question 19

Question
Tick three strengths of the Ontological Argument.
Answer
  • The Ontological Argument is inductive and a posteriori, meaning we can use experience to show that God exists.
  • The Ontological Argument is deductive and a priori, meaning that we don't rely on experience to show that God exists.
  • Wittgenstein's Language Games: The Ontological Argument makes sense within the religious language field. It cannot be criticised using scientific language, like Kant, Russell and Davies.
  • The Ontological Argument was written as a prayer. Anselm was not trying to persuade non-believers of God's existence. Rather he gave theists a basis for their faith in God's existence.