NMS Set 1 Quiz - Pharmacology, Nerve damage and RMP.

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Question 1

Question
What name is given to the label 1?
Answer
  • Threshold
  • Depolarisation
  • Repolarisation
  • Hyperpolarisation

Question 2

Question
What name is given to A?
Answer
  • Depolarisation
  • Repolarisation
  • Hyperpolarisation
  • Threshold

Question 3

Question
What name is given to B?
Answer
  • Repolarisation
  • Hyperpolarisation
  • Depolarisation
  • Threshold

Question 4

Question
What name is given to C?
Answer
  • Hyperpolarisation
  • Depolarisation
  • Repolarisation
  • Threshold

Question 5

Question
The absolute refractory period refers to the period of hyperpolarisation in an action potential.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
The refractory period is important for what?
Answer
  • Unidirectionality
  • Discrete action potentials

Question 7

Question
Conductance is approximately equal to permeability.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
How is an action potential propagated in a non-myelinated axon?
Answer
  • The local current in an axonal section flows to the next "segment" of the axon, causing depolarisation of that part of the membrane. This continues, causing propagation of the action potential.
  • The non-myelinated axon is insulated by a myelin sheath which allows current to 'jump' from node to node, via "saltatory conduction".

Question 9

Question
Anterograde transport occurs away from the cell body of a neurone.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
Kinesin are motor proteins that partake in anterograde transport.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Kinesin walk towards the positive end of microtubules found in the axon, which usually leads away from the cell body of the neuron.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Motor proteins carry vesicles or membrane bound organelles like mitochondria to their desired location.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
What is the correct process of wallerian degeneration?
Answer
  • Trauma -> Axonal breakdown -> Macrophage invasion from nearby blood vessels -> Phagocytosis -> Ready for regeneration
  • Trauma -> Axonal breakdown -> Axonal fragments absorbed into bloodstream -> Ready for regeneration

Question 14

Question
What is the correct process of wallerian regeneration?
Answer
  • Edge of trauma site develops an axonal sprout -> the sprout encourages schwann cell division -> the schwann cells release neurotrophins to guide the growth cone -> growth cone grows -> axon regenerated
  • Edge of trauma site develops an axonal sprout -> the sprout encourages oligodendrocyte division -> the oligodendrocytes release neurotrophins to guide the growth cone -> growth cone grows -> axon regenerated

Question 15

Question
A class 1 nerve injury would cause what?
Answer
  • Minor compression and no axon degeneration
  • Crushing and resulting degeneration
  • Severe tear and endoneurium will be compromised

Question 16

Question
A class 2 nerve injury would cause what?
Answer
  • Minor compression and no axon degeneration
  • Crushing and resulting degeneration
  • Severe tear and endoneurium will be compromised

Question 17

Question
A class 3 nerve injury would cause what?
Answer
  • Minor compression and no axon degeneration
  • Crushing and resulting degeneration
  • Severe tear and endoneurium will be compromised

Question 18

Question
Reactive astrocytes contribute to CNS nerve regeneration.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
What part of a local anaesthetic is shown by the red question mark?
Answer
  • Aromatic ring
  • Linkage
  • Amine group

Question 20

Question
What part of a local anaesthetic is shown by the green question mark?
Answer
  • Amine group
  • Aromatic ring
  • Linkage

Question 21

Question
What different type of link may be present in the part of the LA labelled with a blue question mark?
Answer
  • Ester
  • Amide
  • Carbonyl
  • Ketone

Question 22

Question
Why do most modern local anaesthetics have an amide linkage rather than an ester linkage?
Answer
  • Broken down more slowly - longer time of action
  • Broken down more quickly - shorter time of action
  • More prone to causing allergies
  • Less prone to causing allergies

Question 23

Question
The function of the aromatic ring in the local anaesthetic is to provide lipid soluble properties.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Local anaesthetics are...
Answer
  • Weak bases
  • Weak acids
  • Strong bases
  • Strong acids

Question 25

Question
Following on from the previous question, would a local anaesthetic be ionised in...
Answer
  • Acidic conditions
  • Alkaline conditions

Question 26

Question
The ionised form of the local anaesthetic can cross the plasma membrane to exhibit its action.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
The ionised version of the local anaesthetic blocks the voltage-gated Na+ channels to prevent action potentials being generated.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 28

Question
Why is local anaesthetic less effective when a bacterial infection is present?
Answer
  • Local anaesthetics are weak bases. Bacteria that are present at the infection site will be metabolising substances which creates an acidic environment. An acidic environment will cause ionisation of the local anaesthetic. The ionised form of the local anaesthetic cannot cross the plasma membrane. Less local anaesthetic crossing the PM means there is less blocking of VG Na+ channels and therefore the local anaesthetic is less effective.
  • Local anaesthetics are weak acids. Bacteria that are present at the infection site will be metabolising substances which creates an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment will cause ionisation of the local anaesthetic. The ionised form of the local anaesthetic cannot cross the plasma membrane. Less local anaesthetic crossing the PM means there is less blocking of VG Na+ channels and therefore the local anaesthetic is less effective.

Question 29

Question
Lower diameter, less myelinated axons are more sensitive to local anaesthetic.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
What is topical application of local anaesthetics?
Answer
  • Surface application
  • Blocking a branch of nerve fibres
  • Block somewhere along the length of the nerve before it branches

Question 31

Question
What is meant by infiltration in the context of application of local anaesthetics?
Answer
  • Surface application
  • Blocking a branch of nerve fibres
  • Block somewhere along the length of the nerve before it branches

Question 32

Question
What is meant by nerve block in the context of application of local anaesthetics?
Answer
  • Surface application
  • Blocking a branch of nerve fibres
  • Block somewhere along the length of the nerve before it branches

Question 33

Question
What side effects could result from local anaesthetic in high doses?
Answer
  • Decrease cardiac muscle contractility.
  • Increase cardiac muscle contractility.
  • Vasodilatation
  • Vasoconstriction

Question 34

Question
What adjunct might be used with local anaesthetic?
Answer
  • Adrenaline
  • Bupivicaine
  • Omeprasole
  • Acetylcholine

Question 35

Question
Transmitter binding to post-synaptic receptors causes a conformational change.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
Many neurotransmitters can bind to one receptor subtype.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Metabotropic receptors are an ion channel pore which opens upon neurotransmitter binding.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Temporal summation increases the number of synapses firing at the same time to help threshold to be exceeded.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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