Operating Systems

Matthew Warner
Quiz by Matthew Warner, updated more than 1 year ago
Matthew Warner
Created by Matthew Warner almost 5 years ago
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Question 1

Question
What are the 4 components of a computer system?
Answer
  • Hardware
  • Operating System
  • Kernel
  • Application Programs
  • ROM
  • User

Question 2

Question
An operating system is a resource allocator?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
The bootstrap program is stored in [blank_start]ROM[blank_end]
Answer
  • ROM

Question 4

Question
The occurrence of an event is usually signalled by an [blank_start]interrupt[blank_end] from either hardware or software.
Answer
  • interrupt

Question 5

Question
Main memory is typically implemented in semiconductor technology called variable random memory (VRAM).
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
Since EEPROM can not be changed it only stores static programs like bootstrap
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
A typical instruction-execution cycle for a Von Neumann Architecture is:
Answer
  • 1. Fetch an instruction from memory and stores the instructions in the instruction register. 2. Decode the operation and fetch operands from memory 3. Instruction is executed and stored back in memory
  • 1. Decode the operation and fetch operands from memory 2. Instruction is executed and stored back in memory 3. Fetch an instruction from memory and stores the instructions in the instruction register.

Question 8

Question
We would like programs and data to both reside in main memory. This is not possible for two reasons:
Answer
  • 1. Main memory is usually too small to store all needed programs and data permanently 2. Main memory is a volatile storage device that loses its contents when power is turned off
  • 1. Main memory is usually too small to store all needed programs and data permanently 2. Main memory is a non-volatile storage device that loses its contents when power is turned off
  • 1. Using this approach would be to fast for the operating system to interpret and therefore would not be feasible 2. Programs are not written this way and would be way to difficult to change the way a computer works now.

Question 9

Question
What is the main requirement for secondary-storage?
Answer
  • The ability to hold large quantities of data permanently
  • The ability to use as little power as possible
  • The smaller the size the better
  • The faster the better

Question 10

Question
The most common secondary storage is a [blank_start]magnetic disk[blank_end] which provides storage for both programs and data.
Answer
  • magnetic disk
  • solid state drive
  • cloud drive
  • external disk
  • CD-ROM

Question 11

Question
The main difference among the various storage systems lie in:
Answer
  • speed
  • cost
  • size
  • volatility
  • power consumption

Question 12

Question
Volatile Storage loses its contents when power to the device is removed
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
What are the two types of Sold-State disks?
Answer
  • Solid-State disk stores data in large DRAM array during normal operation but also contains a hidden magnetic hard disk and a battery for backup-power
  • Solid-State disk is flash memory
  • Electromagnetic Varient Memory
  • Magnetic Allocation memory

Question 14

Question
A device controller must contain what?
Answer
  • some local buffer storage and a set of special-purpose registers
  • a device controller must house a single processor
  • must container at least one cache

Question 15

Question
How do we solve the problem of interrupt-driven I/O having high overhead when moving bulk data?
Answer
  • direct memory access (DMA)
  • device memory access (DMA)
  • process memory access (PMA)
  • local memory access (LMA)

Question 16

Question
What do single-processors not run?
Answer
  • kernel processes
  • user processes
  • I/O processes

Question 17

Question
[blank_start]Multiprocessor systems[blank_end] have two or more processors in close communication, sharing the computer bus and sometimes the clock, memory, and peripheral devices.
Answer
  • Multiprocessor systems
  • Singleprocessor systems
  • Complexprocessor systems
  • Dynamicprocessor systems

Question 18

Question
advantages of multiprocessor systems?
Answer
  • increased throughput
  • economy of scale
  • increased reliability
  • power reduction
  • size of unit

Question 19

Question
[blank_start]Graceful degradation[blank_end] is the ability to continue providing service proportional to the level of surviving hardware.
Answer
  • Graceful degradation
  • Steady wear
  • Graceful wear
  • Slow deterioration

Question 20

Question
Asymmetric multiprocessing is where each processor performs all tasks within the operating system.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
Symmetric multiprocessing is where each processor is assigned a specific task
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
more multiprocessors increases computing power but if the CPU has an [blank_start]integrated memory[blank_end] controller then adding CPUs also increase the amount of memory addressable in the system
Answer
  • integrated memory
  • I/O
  • cache memory
  • processor

Question 23

Question
multiprocessing can cause a system to change its memory access model from [blank_start]uniform memory access (UMA)[blank_end] to [blank_start]non-uniform memory access (NUMA)[blank_end]
Answer
  • uniform memory access (UMA)
  • non-uniform memory access (NUMA)
  • non-uniform memory access (NUMA)
  • uniform memory access (UMA)

Question 24

Question
[blank_start]UMA[blank_end] is the situation in which access to RAM from any CPU takes [blank_start]the same[blank_end] time
Answer
  • UMA
  • NUMA
  • NUSM
  • UHM
  • the same
  • more
  • less

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]NUMA[blank_end] is some parts of memory may take [blank_start]longer[blank_end] to access than other parts
Answer
  • NUMA
  • UMA
  • SLT
  • UHG
  • longer
  • less time
  • the same time

Question 26

Question
multicore systems are multiprocessor systems, not all multiprocessor systems are multicore
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]blade servers[blank_end] are where each processor board boots independently and runs its own operating system
Answer
  • blade servers
  • dynamic servers
  • multiprocessors
  • multi servers

Question 28

Question
What is NVRAM?
Answer
  • DRAM with battery backup
  • RAM with volatile memory
  • ROM with non-volatile memory
  • DRAM with volatile and non-volatile memory

Question 29

Question
Another type of multiprocessor system is a clustered system?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
clustered computers are defined as:
Answer
  • sharing storage
  • are closely linked via a local-area network or a faster interconnect
  • share resources
  • share processing power

Question 31

Question
clustering is usually used to provide [blank_start]high-availability service[blank_end]
Answer
  • high-availability service
  • faster processing
  • higher security
  • multithreading

Question 32

Question
why is clustering used?
Answer
  • service will continue even if one or more systems in the cluster fail
  • higher processing used by having more than one processor work on a job
  • a boss processor will switch in and out jobs so there is no idle processors no matter what

Question 33

Question
What are the components of clustered systems?
Answer
  • gathers together multiple CPUs
  • are composed of two or more individual systems - or nodes - joined together
  • multiple operating systems run on the same board
  • each processor runs its own operating system

Question 34

Question
clustered systems are composed of two or more individual systems - or nodes - joined together. This is called loosely coupled
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
clustering can be structured asymmetrically or symmetrically
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
in asymmetric clustering one machine is in [blank_start]hot-standby[blank_end] while the other is running the applications
Answer
  • hot-standby

Question 37

Question
what is the hot-standby host function?
Answer
  • the host machine does nothing but monitor the active server
  • the host machine allocates jobs to other servers

Question 38

Question
what does an asymmetric hot-standby host machine do if the server fails?
Answer
  • the hot-standby host becomes the active server
  • the hot-standby host reallocates the jobs to other servers
  • the hot-standby host cancels all jobs for that server and notifies all other servers of its failure

Question 39

Question
symmetric clustering is when two or more hosts are running applications and are monitoring each other
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
symmetric clustering is more efficient?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
why is symmetric clustering more efficient?
Answer
  • is uses all of the available hardware
  • it talks between each processor more efficiently

Question 42

Question
what are the component(s) of cluster parallelization?
Answer
  • parallelization divides a program into separate components that run in parallel on individual computers in the cluster
  • these applications are designed so that once each computing node in the cluster has solved its portion of the problem, the results from all the nodes are combined into a final solution
  • parallelization concurrently divides jobs between nodes

Question 43

Question
to provide shared access, the system must also supply access control and locking to ensure that no conflicting operations occur. this is known as [blank_start]distributed lock manager (DLM)[blank_end]
Answer
  • distributed lock manager (DLM)
  • eye lock manager (ELM)
  • protected access manager (PAM)
  • distributed access manager (DAM)

Question 44

Question
improvements to clustering are made possible by [blank_start]storage-area networks (SANs)[blank_end]
Answer
  • storage-area networks (SANs)
  • dynamic-area networks (DANs)
  • symmetric-area networks (SANs)

Question 45

Question
the advantage(s) of storage-area networks (SANs)
Answer
  • allows many systems to attach to a pool of storage
  • if the applications and their data are stored on the SAN, then the cluster software can assign the application to run on any host that is attached to the SAN
  • allows concurrent processing through allocation of storage
  • symmetric processing is possible through sharing of processing of programs

Question 46

Question
beowulf clusters are designed to solve high-performance computing tasks
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 47

Question
beowulf computing nodes typically run Linux operating systems
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 48

Question
why is beowulf clusters a low cost strategy for building a high-performance computing cluster?
Answer
  • uses open-source software
  • uses less power
  • less processors are needed

Question 49

Question
beowulf clusters nodes use a set of [blank_start]open-source[blank_end] software libraries to communicate with one another
Answer
  • open-source

Question 50

Question
[blank_start]multiprogramming[blank_end] increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs (code and data) so that the CPU always has one to execute
Answer
  • multiprogramming

Question 51

Question
the main idea(s) behind multiprogramming?
Answer
  • the jobs are prioritized so that the most important jobs are done first
  • the program uses all available processors to run the program concurrently
  • as long as at least one job needs to execute the CPU is never idle

Question 52

Question
what does time sharing require?
Answer
  • an interactive computer system
  • a dynamic computer system
  • a static computer system
  • a clustered computer system
  • a GUI computer system

Question 53

Question
a time-shared operating system allows many users to share the computer simultaneously
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 54

Question
how do we achieve the goal of reasonable time from time-sharing?
Answer
  • we use swapping or virtual memory
  • multithreading
  • concurrent processing
  • we use a method called logical memory

Question 55

Question
what is virtual memory?
Answer
  • it abstracts main memory into a large, uniform array of storage separating logical memory as viewed by the user from physical memory
  • memory is run in the cloud
  • memory is constantly switched out between the main memory and cache to give the allusion of memory space larger than it actually is

Question 56

Question
modern systems are [blank_start]interrupt[blank_end] driven
Answer
  • interrupt

Question 57

Question
[blank_start]mode[blank_end] bit is added to the hardware of the computer to indicate the current mode - kernel (0) - user (1)
Answer
  • mode

Question 58

Question
what is the function of dual mode?
Answer
  • it provides the operating system the means of protecting it from errant users and errant users from one another
  • the operating systems is protected from hackers that are trying to gain remote access
  • it protects your files from errant users

Question 59

Question
[blank_start]virtual machine manager (VMM)[blank_end] has more privileges than the user processes but fewer than the kernel
Answer
  • virtual machine manager (VMM)
  • dynamic machine manager (DMM)
  • file machine manager (FMM)
  • force quite manager (FQM)
  • processor machine manager (PMM)

Question 60

Question
a timers period may be [blank_start]fixed[blank_end] or [blank_start]variable[blank_end]
Answer
  • fixed
  • variable

Question 61

Question
variable timer is generally implemented by a fixed-rate clock and counter
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 62

Question
why do we use timers?
Answer
  • we can use timers to prevent a user program from running too long
  • to calculate the time efficiency of a program
  • to display the time of a files last update

Question 63

Question
a program is a [blank_start]passive[blank_end] entity, like the contents of a file stored on disk, whereas a process is an [blank_start]active[blank_end] entity
Answer
  • passive
  • active

Question 64

Question
a single-threaded process has one [blank_start]program counter[blank_end] specifying the next instruction to execute
Answer
  • program counter

Question 65

Question
the operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management:
Answer
  • scheduling processes and threads on the CPUs
  • creating and deleting both user and system processes
  • suspending and resuming processes
  • providing mechanisms for process synchronization
  • providing mechanisms for process communication

Question 66

Question
for a program to be executed it must be mapped to absolute addresses and loaded into memory
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 67

Question
when selecting the memory-management scheme you must take into account many factors but especially the [blank_start]hardware[blank_end] design of the system
Answer
  • hardware

Question 68

Question
the operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with memory management:
Answer
  • keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and who is using them
  • deciding which processes (or parts of processes) and data to move into and out of memory
  • allocating and deallocating memory space as needed
  • allocating and deallocating processes to complete jobs

Question 69

Question
the operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with the file management:
Answer
  • creating and deleting files
  • creating and deleting directories to organize files
  • supporting primitives for manipulating files and directories
  • mapping files onto secondary storage
  • backing up files on stable (nonvolatile) storage media
  • communicating between the clouds file system and the local file system on your computer

Question 70

Question
the operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with the disk management:
Answer
  • free-space management
  • storage allocation
  • disk scheduling

Question 71

Question
the entire speed of operation of a computer may hinge on the speeds of the disk subsystem and the algorithms that manipulate that subsystem
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 72

Question
when we need a particular piece of information, we first check wether it is in the cache which of the following is true if any of the above statement?
Answer
  • if it is, we use the information directly from the cache
  • if it is not, we use the information from the source, putting a copy in the cache under the assumption that we will need it again soon
  • if it is not, we use the information directly from the cache
  • if it is, we use the information from the source, putting a copy in the cache under the assumption that we will need it again soon

Question 73

Question
with multiprocessors each has its own local cache so when the value of something changes you must make sure that value is changed computer wide. this is called [blank_start]cache coherency[blank_end]
Answer
  • cache coherency

Question 74

Question
I/O subsystems consists of several component(s):
Answer
  • a memory-manamgment component that includes buffering, caching, and spooling
  • a general device-driver interface
  • drivers for specific hardware devices

Question 75

Question
most operating systems maintain a lot of user names and associated [blank_start]user identifiers[blank_end]
Answer
  • user identifiers

Question 76

Question
in a [blank_start]singly linked list[blank_end], each item points to its successor
Answer
  • singly linked list
  • doubly linked list
  • circularly linked list

Question 77

Question
in a [blank_start]doubly linked list[blank_end], a given item can refer either to its predecessor or to its successor
Answer
  • doubly linked list
  • singly linked list
  • circularly linked list

Question 78

Question
in a [blank_start]circularly linked list[blank_end], the last element in the list refers to the first element, rather than to null
Answer
  • circularly linked list
  • singly linked list
  • doubly linked list

Question 79

Question
[blank_start]general[blank_end] tree is when a parent may have an unlimited number of children
Answer
  • general

Question 80

Question
[blank_start]binary[blank_end] tree is when a parent may have at most two children, which we term left child and the right child
Answer
  • binary

Question 81

Question
[blank_start]binary search[blank_end] tree, additionally requires an ordering between the parents two children in which left_child <= right_child
Answer
  • binary search

Question 82

Question
[blank_start]balanced binary search[blank_end] tree is when a tree containing n items as at most log(n) levels
Answer
  • balanced binary search

Question 83

Question
[blank_start]hash function[blank_end] takes data as input, performs a numeric operation on this data, and returns a numeric value
Answer
  • hash function

Question 84

Question
what is it called when two hash function have the same output
Answer
  • hash collision
  • hash interrupt
  • hash contact
  • hash dilapidation

Question 85

Question
in the event of a hash collision what method do we employ
Answer
  • we use a linked list at the table location that contains all of the items with the same hash value
  • we use a array at the table location that contains all of the items with the same hash value
  • we use a stack at the table location that contains all of the items with the same hash value

Question 86

Question
[blank_start]hash map[blank_end] associates pairs using a hash function
Answer
  • hash map

Question 87

Question
[blank_start]bitmap[blank_end] is a string of n binary digits that can be used to represent the status of n items
Answer
  • bitmap

Question 88

Question
when are bitmaps commonly used?
Answer
  • when there is a need to represent the availability of a large number of resources
  • when there is a need to represent the large number of processes
  • when there is a need to represent the large number of jobs

Question 89

Question
[blank_start]distributed systems[blank_end] is a collection of physically separate, possibly heterogeneous computer systems that are networked to provide users with access to the various resources that the system maintains
Answer
  • distributed systems

Question 90

Question
[blank_start]network[blank_end] is a communication path between two or more systems
Answer
  • network

Question 91

Question
what do distributed systems depend on for their functionality?
Answer
  • networking
  • GUI
  • multicore systems
  • multiprogramming

Question 92

Question
[blank_start]TCP/IP[blank_end] is the most common network protocol, and it provides the fundamental architecture of the Internet
Answer
  • TCP/IP

Question 93

Question
[blank_start]local-area network (LAN)[blank_end] connects computers within a room, a building or a campus
Answer
  • local-area network (LAN)
  • wide-area network (WAN)
  • personal-area network (PAN)

Question 94

Question
[blank_start]wide-area network (WAN)[blank_end] usually links buildings, cities or countries
Answer
  • wide-area network (WAN)
  • local-area network (LAN)
  • personal-area network (PAN)

Question 95

Question
[blank_start]personal-area network (PAN)[blank_end] connects a phone to a headset or a smartphone and a desktop computer
Answer
  • personal-area network (PAN)
  • wide-area network (WAN)
  • local-area network (LAN)

Question 96

Question
[blank_start]network operating system[blank_end] is an operating system that provides features such as file sharing across the network, along with communication scheme that allows different processes on different computers to exchange messages
Answer
  • network operating system

Question 97

Question
many of todays systems act as [blank_start]server systems[blank_end] to satisfy requests generated by [blank_start]client systems[blank_end]
Answer
  • server systems
  • client systems

Question 98

Question
the function of a computer-server system:
Answer
  • provides an interface to which client can send a request to perform an action. in response the server executes the action and sends the results to the client
  • provides a file-system interface where clients can create, update, read, and delete files

Question 99

Question
[blank_start]file-server system[blank_end] provides a file-system interface where clients can create, update, read, and delete files
Answer
  • file-server system

Question 100

Question
an example of a computer-server system:
Answer
  • server running a database
  • server running a web browser

Question 101

Question
an example of a file-server system:
Answer
  • server running a database
  • server running a web browser

Question 102

Question
[blank_start]peer-to-peer[blank_end] computing clients and servers are not distinguished from one another
Answer
  • peer-to-peer

Question 103

Question
in a [blank_start]client-server[blank_end] system, the server is a bottleneck; but in a [blank_start]peer-to-peer[blank_end] system, services can be provided by several nodes distributed throughout the network
Answer
  • client-server
  • peer-to-peer

Question 104

Question
deeming what services are available is accomplished in one of two general ways: - when a node joins a network, it registers its services with a centralized lookup service on the network, Any node desiring a specific service first contacts this centralized lookup service to determine which node provides the service. the remainder of the communication takes place between the client and the service provider - An alternative scheme uses no centralized lookup service. Instead, a peer acting as a client must discover what node provides a desired service by broadcasting a request for the service to all other nodes in the network. the node (or nodes) providing that service responds to the peer making the request. To support this approach, a discovery protocol must be provided that allows peers to discover services provided by other peers in the network
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 105

Question
[blank_start]emulation[blank_end] is used when the source CPU type is different from the target CPU type
Answer
  • emulation

Question 106

Question
process of emulation: every machine-level instruction that runs natively on the source system must be translated to the equivalent function on the target system
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 107

Question
[blank_start]interpretation[blank_end] is a form of emulation in that the high-level language code is translated to native CPU instructions, emulating not another CPU but a theoretical virtual machine on which that language could run natively
Answer
  • interpretation

Question 108

Question
[blank_start]virtualization[blank_end] is an operating system that is natively compiled for a particular CPU architecture runs within another operating system also native to that CPU
Answer
  • virtualization

Question 109

Question
cloud computing is a type of computing that delivers computing, storage, and even applications as a service across a network
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 110

Question
which is not a type of cloud computing
Answer
  • public cloud
  • private cloud
  • hybrid cloud
  • dynamic cloud

Question 111

Question
a [blank_start]public cloud[blank_end] is a cloud available vie the internet to anyone willing to pay for the services
Answer
  • public cloud

Question 112

Question
a [blank_start]private cloud[blank_end] is a cloud run by a company for that company's own use
Answer
  • private cloud

Question 113

Question
a [blank_start]hybrid cloud[blank_end] is a cloud that includes both public and private cloud components
Answer
  • hybrid cloud

Question 114

Question
[blank_start]Software as a service (SaaS)[blank_end] is one or more applications (such as word processors or spreadsheets) available via internet
Answer
  • Software as a service (SaaS)
  • Platform as a service (PaaS)
  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
  • Program as a service (PaaS)

Question 115

Question
______________ is a software stack ready for application use via internet
Answer
  • Platform as a service (PaaS)
  • Software as a service (SaaS)
  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Question 116

Question
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is one or more applications available via internet
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 117

Question
embedded systems almost always run [blank_start]real-time[blank_end] operating systems
Answer
  • real-time

Question 118

Question
when do we use real-time systems?
Answer
  • when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation or processor or the flow of data
  • when we need to run a process concurrently in the system
  • when we are running a blade-server system we want to use a real-time system

Question 119

Question
The types of user interfaces are: - command-line interface (CLI) - batch interface - graphical user interface (GUI)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 120

Question
for efficiency and protection, users usually can control I/O
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 121

Question
[blank_start]shared memory[blank_end] is when two or more processes read and write to a shared section of memory
Answer
  • shared memory

Question 122

Question
[blank_start]message passing[blank_end] is packets of information in predefined formats are moved between processes by the operating system
Answer
  • message passing

Question 123

Question
when several separate processes execute concurrently, it should be possible for one process to interfere with the others or with the operating system itself
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 124

Question
the [blank_start]api[blank_end] specifies a set of functions that are available to an application programmer, including the parameters that are passed to each function and return values the program can expect
Answer
  • api

Question 125

Question
system-call interface serves as the link to system calls made available by the operating system
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 126

Question
what are the method(s) used to pass parameters to the operating system?
Answer
  • pass the parameters in registers
  • parameters are generally stored in a block, or table, in memory, and the address of the block is passed as a parameter in a register
  • parameters also can be placed, or pushed, onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system

Question 127

Question
[blank_start]debugger[blank_end] is a system program designed to aid the programmer in finding and correcting errors
Answer
  • debugger

Question 128

Question
what are the major categories of system calls?
Answer
  • process control
  • file management
  • device management
  • information maintenance
  • communications
  • cloud communication
  • network calls

Question 129

Question
what is part of the message-passing model?
Answer
  • communicating processes exchange messages with one another to transfer information
  • each computer in a network has a host name by which it is commonly known
  • each process has a process name
  • most processes that will be receiving connections are special-purpose daemons
  • the form of the data is determined by the processes and is not under the operating system control
  • the processes are also responsible for ensuring that they are not writing to the same location simultaneously

Question 130

Question
what is part of the shared-memory model?
Answer
  • shared memory requires that two or more processes agree to remove the restriction that one process cannot access another processes memory
  • the form of the data is determined by the processes and is not under the operating systems control
  • the processes are also responsible for ensuring that they are not writing to the same location simultaneously
  • each computer in a network has a host name by which it is commonly known
  • most processes that will be receiving connections are special-purpose daemons

Question 131

Question
what are the system utilities categories?
Answer
  • file management
  • status information
  • file modification
  • programming-language support
  • programming loading and execution
  • communications
  • background services
  • application programs

Question 132

Question
operating system requirements are divided into two basic groups: [blank_start]user goals[blank_end] and [blank_start]system goals[blank_end]
Answer
  • user goals
  • system goals

Question 133

Question
[blank_start]mechanisms[blank_end] are how to do something and [blank_start]policies[blank_end] are what will be done
Answer
  • mechanisms
  • policies

Question 134

Question
the advantage to writing in high level languages is that it is faster and lowers storage requirements
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 135

Question
the main advantage to the layered approach when making an O.S. is
Answer
  • simplicity of construction and debugging
  • debugging and less time
  • less time and less cost

Question 136

Question
The main function of the microkernel is to provide communication between the client program and various services in the user space. Communication is provided through message passing
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 137

Question
what is one benefit of the microkernel?
Answer
  • it makes extending the operating system easier. it also provides more security and reliability.
  • the performance of microkernels overhead is extremely small

Question 138

Question
what is the loadable kernel modules?
Answer
  • the kernel has a set of core components, and links to additional services via modules, either at boot time or during run time
  • remove all nonessential components from the kernel and implement them as system and user level programs

Question 139

Question
the best methodology to OS design is using loadable kernel modules
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 140

Question
how is Mac OSX a hybrid system?
Answer
  • the top layer the user interface. below theses layers is the kernel environment which is MACH and BSD UNIX kernel
  • the top layer the user interface. below theses layers is the kernel environment which is cocoa api

Question 141

Question
a failure in the kernel is called a crash and information about it is saved in a [blank_start]crash dump[blank_end]
Answer
  • crash dump

Question 142

Question
the operating can take a [blank_start]core dump[blank_end], a capture of the memory of the process, to be stored for later analysis
Answer
  • core dump

Question 143

Question
the operating system produces [blank_start]trace listings[blank_end] of system behaviour to try to find bottle necks
Answer
  • trace listings

Question 144

Question
[blank_start]Profiling[blank_end] periodically samples the instruction pointer to determine which code is being executed. It can show stat trends but not individual activity.
Answer
  • Profiling

Question 145

Question
an OS must be generated for each specific computer site, a process known as [blank_start]system generation (SYSGEN)[blank_end]
Answer
  • system generation (SYSGEN)
  • operating system generation (OSYSGEN)
  • kernel generation (KG)
  • kernel and user generation (KUG)

Question 146

Question
The SYSGEN is on the disk or ISO of the OS and it queries the user on hardware information such as:
Answer
  • What CPU is used? What options are installed?
  • How will the boot disk be formatted? How many partitions are there?
  • How much memory is available?
  • What devices are available?
  • What operating system options are desired?

Question 147

Question
after the OS is generated, it must be loaded into the kernel using a [blank_start]bootstrap loader[blank_end]. This program is placed in ROM.
Answer
  • bootstrap loader

Question 148

Question
a bootstrap can also run diagnostics on a system to ensure it is properly working before booting
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 149

Question
a [blank_start]batch[blank_end] system executes jobs, whereas a [blank_start]time-shared[blank_end] system has user programs, or tasks
Answer
  • batch
  • time-shared

Question 150

Question
a [blank_start]process[blank_end] is more than the program code, which is sometimes known as the [blank_start]text section[blank_end]. It also includes the current activity, represented by the [blank_start]program counter[blank_end]
Answer
  • process
  • text section
  • program counter
  • text section
  • process
  • program counter
  • program counter
  • process
  • text section

Question 151

Question
what does the process stack generally contain?
Answer
  • contains temporary data. as well as a data section
  • contains temporary data. as well as a process section
  • contains program counter as well as a data section

Question 152

Question
what can a process also include? and what is its function?
Answer
  • heap - memory that is dynamically allocated during process run time
  • hash - memory that is dynamically allocated during process run time
  • hash - memory that is asymmetrically allocated during process run time
  • heap - memory that is asymmetrically allocated during process run time

Question 153

Question
the program itself is not a process. A program is a ___________
Answer
  • passive entity
  • static entity
  • dynamic entity
  • active entity

Question 154

Question
a process is a(n) __________________
Answer
  • active entity
  • passive entity
  • dynamic entity
  • static entity

Question 155

Question
a program becomes a process when it is loaded into memory
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 156

Question
select the common ways of executing a program:
Answer
  • double click an icon representing the executable file
  • entering the name of the executable file on the command line
  • using the program counter
  • using a system call to start a program
  • using the command startx

Question 157

Question
although two processes can be related to the same program, they are not considered two separate execution sequences
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 158

Question
a process itself can be an execution environment for other code
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 159

Question
as a program executes, it changes [blank_start]state[blank_end]. The [blank_start]state[blank_end] of a process is defined in part by the current activity of the process
Answer
  • state
  • state

Question 160

Question
what are not common states or a process?
Answer
  • new
  • running
  • waiting
  • ready
  • terminated
  • halted
  • overhaul

Question 161

Question
it is important to know that only [blank_start]one[blank_end] process can be running at a time, while [blank_start]many[blank_end] can be ready or waiting
Answer
  • one
  • many

Question 162

Question
each process is represented in the operating system by a [blank_start]process control block (PCB)[blank_end] also called the control block.
Answer
  • process control block (PCB)
  • heap control block (HCB)
  • process counter control block (PCCB)
  • accounting control block (ACB)

Question 163

Question
which is not part of the process control block?
Answer
  • process state
  • program counter
  • cpu registers
  • cpu-scheduling information
  • memory-manamgent information
  • accounting information
  • I/O status information
  • program heap

Question 164

Question
[blank_start]Process State[blank_end] - the state may be new, running, halted, ect.
Answer
  • Process State
  • Program counter
  • CPU registers
  • CPU-scheduling information
  • Memory-management information
  • Accounting information
  • I/O status information

Question 165

Question
[blank_start]Program counter[blank_end] - the counter indicates the address of the next instruction to be executed for this process
Answer
  • Program counter
  • Process sate
  • CPU registers
  • CPU-scheduling information
  • Memory-management information
  • Accounting information
  • I/O status information

Question 166

Question
[blank_start]CPU registers[blank_end] - the registers vary in number and type, depending on the computer architecture. They include accumulators, index registers, stack pointers, and general purpose registers, as well as condition code information. All this information must be saved when an interrupt occurs.
Answer
  • CPU registers
  • Process registers
  • Heap registers

Question 167

Question
______________ - this information includes a process priority, pointers to scheduling queues, and any other scheduling parameters
Answer
  • CPU-scheduling
  • Process-scheduling

Question 168

Question
[blank_start]memory[blank_end]-management information - This information may include such items as the value of the base and limit registers and the page tables, or the segment tables, depending on the memory system used by the operating system.
Answer
  • memory

Question 169

Question
[blank_start]accounting[blank_end] information - This information includes the amount of CPU and real time used, time limits, account numbers, job process numbers, and so on
Answer
  • accounting

Question 170

Question
I/O [blank_start]status[blank_end] information - This information includes the list of I/O devices allocated to the process, a list of open files, and so on
Answer
  • status

Question 171

Question
a process is a program that performs a single [blank_start]thread[blank_end] of execution. Many systems now have upgraded this to allow a program to run multiple [blank_start]thread[blank_end] of execution.
Answer
  • thread
  • thread

Question 172

Question
On a system that supports threads, the [blank_start]PCB[blank_end] is extended to include the information for each thread.
Answer
  • PCB
  • ACB
  • GPD
  • PCCB

Question 173

Question
we want to have processes running at all times to maximize CPU utilization
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 174

Question
what is the objective of time sharing?
Answer
  • is to switch the CPU among processes so frequently that users can interact with each program while it is running
  • is to switch the CPU among processes so that each process gets equal time to compute its job

Question 175

Question
to meet the objective of time sharing, the [blank_start]process scheduler[blank_end] selects an available process for the program execution on the CPU
Answer
  • process scheduler

Question 176

Question
on single cores, only one process can run at a time
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 177

Question
as a process enters a system, it is put into a [blank_start]job queue[blank_end], which consists of all processes in the system
Answer
  • job queue
  • process stack
  • job linked list
  • process linked list

Question 178

Question
the processes that are residing in main memory and are ready and waiting to execute are kept on a list called the [blank_start]ready queue[blank_end].
Answer
  • ready queue

Question 179

Question
a new process is put on the ready queue until it is selected for execution or [blank_start]dispatched[blank_end]
Answer
  • dispatched

Question 180

Question
Once a process gets the CPU, one of several events may occur:
Answer
  • The process could issue an I/O request and be put on an I/O queue
  • The process could create a new child process and wait for the child's termination
  • The process could be forcibly removed from the CPU, as a result of an interrupt and put back in the ready queue

Question 181

Question
the operating system must select processes from the queues using an appropriate [blank_start]scheduler[blank_end]
Answer
  • scheduler

Question 182

Question
The [blank_start]long-term scheduler[blank_end] or [blank_start]job scheduler[blank_end] selects processes from the batch pool and loads them into memory for execution
Answer
  • long-term scheduler
  • short-term scheduler
  • job scheduler
  • CPU scheduler

Question 183

Question
The [blank_start]shot-term scheduler[blank_end] or [blank_start]CPU scheduler[blank_end] selects from among the processes that are ready for execution and allocates the CPU to one of them
Answer
  • shot-term scheduler
  • long-term scheduler
  • CPU scheduler
  • job scheduler

Question 184

Question
The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU frequently
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 185

Question
The long term scheduler controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 186

Question
when is the degree of multiprogramming stable?
Answer
  • the average number of process creation is equal to the average departure rate of the processes leaving the system
  • the average number of process creation is more than the average departure rate of the processes leaving the system
  • the average number of process creation is less than the average departure rate of the processes leaving the system
  • the average number of process creation is two times more than the average departure rate of the processes leaving the system

Question 187

Question
An I/O bound process generates I/O requests infrequently, spending more time doing computations and a CPU bound process is one that spends most of its time doing I/O rather than computations.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 188

Question
some systems such as time sharing systems may introduce [blank_start]medium[blank_end]-term schedulers. The idea is that sometimes it is advantageous to remove a process from memory to reduce the degree of multiprogramming. Later the process can be reintroduced to memory and start off where they left off, in a process called [blank_start]swapping[blank_end].
Answer
  • medium
  • swapping

Question 189

Question
when an interrupt occurs, the system needs to save the current [blank_start]context[blank_end] of the process running on the CPU so that it can restore that context when processing is done
Answer
  • context

Question 190

Question
Gernerally, we perform a [blank_start]state save[blank_end] of the current state of the CPU, be it in kernel mode or user mode, then use a [blank_start]state restore[blank_end] to resume operation
Answer
  • state save
  • state restore
  • state copy
  • state restore
  • state save
  • state copy
  • state resume

Question 191

Question
the process of completing a state save and state restore is known as a [blank_start]context switch[blank_end]
Answer
  • context switch
  • context swap
  • context flip

Question 192

Question
the [blank_start]kthread[blank_end] process is a child of init and is responsible for creating additional processes that perform tasks on behalf of the kernel
Answer
  • kthread

Question 193

Question
the [blank_start]sshd[blank_end] process is a child of init and is responsible for the managing clients that connect to a system using ssh
Answer
  • sshd

Question 194

Question
the [blank_start]login[blank_end] process is also a child of init and it is used to manage clients that directly log onto the system
Answer
  • login

Question 195

Question
When a process creates a new process. Which are possible for execution:
Answer
  • the parent continues to execute concurrently with the children
  • the parent waits until some or all of its children have terminated

Question 196

Question
with a new process what could happen with address space?
Answer
  • the children process is duplicate of the parent process (it has the same program and data as the parent)
  • the child process has a new program loaded into it

Question 197

Question
A parent may terminate the execution of one of its children for a variety of different reasons, such as:
Answer
  • The child has exceeded its usage of some of the resources that it has been allocated
  • The task assigned to the child is no longer required
  • The parent is existing, and the operating system does not allow a child to continue if its parent terminates

Question 198

Question
[blank_start]Cascading termination[blank_end] is when a parent is terminated, and all of its children are terminated as well
Answer
  • Cascading termination
  • Family termination
  • Mass termination

Question 199

Question
A process that is terminated, but whose parents do not call wait is called a [blank_start]zombie[blank_end] process. All processes transition to this state briefly but are often resolved once wait() is called by the parent
Answer
  • zombie

Question 200

Question
If a parent terminates before a child, it can not call wait(), so the child process becomes and [blank_start]orphan[blank_end]. Linux and Unix solve this problem by assigning [blank_start]init[blank_end] to be the new parent of a child process whose parent prematurely terminates.
Answer
  • orphan
  • init
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