Chapter 6: Freedom vs. Determinism Practice Quiz

Kristen Gardner
Quiz by Kristen Gardner, updated more than 1 year ago
Kristen Gardner
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2 Philosophy Quiz on Chapter 6: Freedom vs. Determinism Practice Quiz , created by Kristen Gardner on 10/15/2015.
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Question 1

Question
What is free will?
Answer
  • Every effect, event, and result that occurs in reality has a cause or causes. There is no such thing as an uncaused effect, event, or result. Humans have no free will.
  • Any change in the psychological condition of the animal.
  • A metaphysical concept referring to the very nature of human reality. We can make choices based on rational weighing of pros and cons, and if we choose something that goes against the rules of our community, we can be held accountable.
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people, (about human nature), then we could predict their every move.

Question 2

Question
What is an example of biological or genetic determinism?
Answer
  • Identical twins raised apart and know nothing of each other, yet both have very identical lives and lifestyles.
  • Scientific and technological developments have a great deal of influence on the economic status of cultures and their member, probably more than economics itself has upon science and technology itself.
  • Oedipus complex and Electra complex.
  • Removing stimuli (ex. loud noise, bright lights, extreme heat or cold, electric shock, etc.)

Question 3

Question
What is negative reinforcement?
Answer
  • Presenting a stimuli (ex. food, water, sexual contact, etc).
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people (about human nature) then we could predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past world would yield 100% accuracy in predicting future events and understand past events in terms of human actions.
  • Any reaction.
  • Removing stimuli (ex. a loud noise, bright lights, extreme heat or cold, electric shock etc).

Question 4

Question
Who's lawyer claimed that he was not to blame because he was on a "sugar high" from eating too many twinkies?
Answer
  • Lyle Menendez
  • John Calvin
  • Dan White
  • James Huberty
  • Nathan Leopold

Question 5

Question
What crime did Lyle and Eric Menedez commit?
Answer
  • They killed George Moscone, (the San Fran Cisco mayor) and another man, (Harvey Milk).
  • They killed their parents in the late 1990's, at point-blank range with a shot gun.
  • In the late 1920's they decided to commit murder just to see if they could commit the "perfect crime".
  • They killed more than 20 people before shooting themselves at a McDonald's during the early 1980's in San Isidro, California.

Question 6

Question
What extenuating circumstances was given to supposedly lessen Bobbit's moral responsibility?
Answer
  • She was an abused spouse. This was the "burning bed" defense, which holds that abused spouses have lost the ability to think logically, so don't consider the possibility of escaping the abuse by leaving.
  • She claimed that she had been physically abuses by her parents for years and was afraid her father might kill her.
  • Any psychiatrist would have claimed that she had a "split personality", and was without feelings of empathy for others. Her wealthy parents seemed to care little for quality time with their daughter, but hired a strict governess to basically raise her. The governess did her best, forcing her to read classics that she had no interest in. Instead, she devoured crime novels (on the sly) and grew skilled at being secretive.
  • Her husband tried claiming that his wife had suffered a chemical imbalance due to eating too many Big Macs.

Question 7

Question
What is a response?
Answer
  • Scientific and technological developments that have a great deal of influence on the economic status of cultures and their members, probably more than economics itself has upon technology and science.
  • Every effect, event, and result that occurs and has a cause or causes. There is no such thing as an uncaused effect, event, or result.
  • Any change in the psychological condition of the animal.
  • Any reaction.

Question 8

Question
What is determinism?
Answer
  • A metaphysical concept referring to the very nature of human reality. We can make choices based on rational weighing of pros and cons, and if we choose something that goes against the rules of the community we can be held accountable.
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people (about human nature), then we would be able to predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past would yield 100% accuracy in predicting future events and understanding past events in terms of human actions.
  • Every effect, event, and result than occurs in reality has a cause or causes. There is no such thing as an uncaused effect, event, or result. Humans have do not have free will.
  • At any given any given time, we can choose to go in a direction other than the one we are going in, (regardless of heredity and environment). Our will power can trump these deterministic forces, because its nature is different from that of the physical world.

Question 9

Question
What is hard determinism?
Answer
  • When a defense lawyer claims that their client raped and killed a number of victims because all the victims resembled his mother and his unconscious hatred of his mother compelled him to commit the crimes.
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people (about human nature), then we would be able to predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past world would yield 100% accuracy in predicting future events and understanding past events in terms of human actions.
  • At any given time we can choose to go in a different direction than the one we are going in, ( regardless of heredity and environment). Our will power can trump the deterministic forces because it's nature is different from that of the physical world.
  • It doesn't dent that there is cause and effect, but it claims that human decisions still contain some measure of freedom. Claims there is universal causation, but (unlike hard determinism), they claim that some of this causation originates with human beings thus giving meaning to the phrase "human freedom".

Question 10

Question
What is bad faith?
Answer
  • When we take responsibility for the meaning of our past and present, and embrace ourselves in an otherwise valueless universe.
  • It happens when we try to fool ourselves into thinking we don't have to make a decision - but then we make the decision to have others decide for us. That is, if we think we can hide behind orders, nature, or tradition, we are in bad faith. Refers to the attempt to deny our freedom to see ourselves with our past choices while closing off future possibilities.
  • The view that all events are irrevocably fixed and predetermined so that they cannot be altered in anyway by human beings - the future is always beyond their control.
  • A political and metaphysical concept referring to the very nature of human reality.

Question 11

Question
What is authenticity?
Answer
  • Doesn't deny that there is cause and effect but claims that human decisions still have some measure of freedom.
  • A change in any psychological condition of the animal.
  • Whatever will be, will be.
  • When we take responsibility for the meaning of our past and present, and embrace ourselves in an otherwise valueless universe. When we make a choice and take responsibility for the consequences. The authentic approach usea the reinterpretations as a means to try and genuinely understand the dynamics of ourselves or our past, and to accept our share of the blame (or praise). It is an authentic approach: if we make a choice and take responsibility for the consequences. If it makes us better at making choices in the face of life's absurdidty. If we reinterpret to try to genuinely understand the dynamics or accept our share of blame (or praise).

Question 12

Question
What is Satre's stance on human existence, which flipped to status quo on existence?
Answer
  • The criminal (in the moment) deliberates and because of that deliberation we can (traditionally) hold them accountable for a later decision to strike.
  • Free will does not directly mean "uncaused", but rather "not directly caused by an agency outside of myself." As long as the 'cause' lies within a persons own reasoning we can safely retain the concept of free will.
  • We can always choose to do something else even if our problems are embedded in our heredity (such as tendency towards violence or alcoholism). That is what makes us different from other creatures. But if humans assume they have a "nature" they reduce themselves to the status of things (and animals). That is, entities without free will.
  • He claims that there is no God and life is meaningless on an objective scale, but that does not conclude that everything is permitted. Since we cannot look to a source outside of time to guarantee our moral values, we must make them up ourselves. And this doesn't mean anything goes, because our measure of our values is whether we could imagine others looking to us as role models.

Question 13

Question
Why doesn't Satre's atheism permit everything, and what morality test makes this so?
Answer
  • We can always choose to do something else even if problems are embedded in our heredity (such as violence or alcoholism). That is what makes us different from other creatures. But if humans assume they have a "nature," they reduce themselves to the status of things (and animals). That is, entities without free will.
  • He claims that there is no God and life is meaningless on an objective scale, but that does not conclude that everything is permitted. Since we cannot look to a source outside of time but to guarantee our moral values, we must make them up ourselves. And this doesn't mean anything goes, because our measure of our values is whether we could imagine others looking to us as role models.
  • Just as a chess game has a multitude of possible moves, (according to the rules), and one could theoretically predict the move (if one could oversee all possibilities), yet it is not possible in practice.
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people (about human nature), then we could predict their every move.

Question 14

Question
What is an example of religious determinism? (Predestination)
Answer
  • Oedipus complex and the Electra complex.
  • When a defense lawyer claims that their client raped and killed a number of victims because all the victims resembled the clients mother and his unconcious hatred of his mother compelled him to commit the crimes.
  • If you were born in and raised in Asia, you would not use a fork, or wear black to a funeral.
  • If God knows that I will murder my wife tonight, then I must do as God foreknows, if I don't, then I am more powerful than God or God is not all-knowing since I did something different than what God foreknew.

Question 15

Question
What is an example of historical or cultural determinism?
Answer
  • If you born and raised in Asia, you would not know how to eat with a fork, or wear black to a funeral
  • Oedipus complex and Electra complex
  • Scientific and technological developments have a great deal of influence on cultures and their members, probably more than economics itself has upon technology.
  • Identical twins raised apart and know nothing of eachotther, yet both have very identical lives and lifestyles.

Question 16

Question
Why would a hard determinist criticize Douglas, and how would he counter it?
Answer
  • A determinist may reply: that the "policeman at elbow" merely supplies a 'cause' why they don't pounce on their victim right then and there. The urge for personal safety overrides the predatory urge. Douglas can counter: The criminal (in the moment) deliberates, and because of that' deliberation we can (traditionally) hold them accountable for a later decision to strike.
  • Free will does not directly mean "uncaused," but rather not directly caused by an agency outside of myself.

Question 17

Question
What are some weaknesses of hard determinism?
Answer
  • It could be argued against hard determinism that because morality is not possible given their paradigm and because we do not have morality, that hard determinism does not hold. It could also be argued that because we feel free some of the time, we must therefore be free.
  • One problem is if things are determined, what is the point of informing people (that things are determined) since they cannot change anything? A related problem is what is the point of holding people morally responsible?

Question 18

Question
According to W.T. Stace, what do hard determinists misunderstand (or misdefine?
Answer
  • The philosopher W.T. Stace, in his book (religion and the modern mind), suggests that hard determinism has misunderstood the meaning of free will. Free will does not directly mean "uncaused," but rather "not directly caused by an a fence outside of myself." As long as the cause lies within a persons own reasoning we can safely retain the concept of free will.
  • It doesn't deny that there is a cause and effect, but claims that human decisions still contain some measure of freedom.

Question 19

Question
What is soft determinsm? Define it.
Answer
  • Every effect, event, and result that occurs in reality has a cause or causes. There is no such thing as an uncaused effect, event, or result. Humans do not have free will.
  • Also known as compatiblism. Doesn't deny that there is cause and effect, but claims that human decisions still contain some measure of freedom. It claims that there is universal causation, but (unlike hard determinism), they claim that some of the causation originates with human beings, thus giving meaning to the phrase "human freedom." It is the theory that human beings are both determined and as free as long as their actions proceed from their inner choices and are not compelled by an external cause.
  • Claims that if we knew enough about people (about human nature), then we could predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past world would yield 100% accuracy in predicting future events and understanding past events in terms of human actions.

Question 20

Question
What is an example of psychological determinism?
Answer
  • Oedipus complex and the Electra complex. When a lawyer claims that their client killed a number of victims because all of the victims resembled the clients mother and his unconcious hatred of his mother compelled him to do the crimes.
  • Identical twins raise apart and know nothing of eachotther, yet both have very identical lives and lifestyles.
  • Scientific and technological developments have a great deal of influence on the economic status of cultures and their members, probably more than economics itself has upon science and technology.

Question 21

Question
What extenuating circumstances was given to supposedly lessen Huberty's moral responsibility?
Answer
  • In the aftermath, his widow tried to sue McDonald's claiming that her husband had suffered a chemical imbalance due to eating too many Big Macs.
  • In his first trail (resulting in a hung jury) he claimed he killed his parents because he had been physically abused for years and was afraid his father was planning to kill him.
  • The lawyer claimed that he was not to blame because he was on a 'sugar high' from eating too many twinkies.

Question 22

Question
What crime did Dan White commit?
Answer
  • He killed more than 20 people before shooting himself at a McDonalds during the early 1980's in San Isidro, California.
  • He was the city supervisor who killed George Moscone, (the San Fran Cisco mayor) and another man, (Harvey Milk)
  • He killed his parents point-blank range with a shot gun.

Question 23

Question
What crime did James Huberty commit?
Answer
  • He killed more than 20 people before shooting himself at a McDonald's in the early 1980's in San Isidro, California.
  • He was an abused spouse who cut his husbands penis off.
  • He tried to commit the "perfect crime."

Question 24

Question
What crime did Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb commit?
Answer
  • They killed more than 20 people and then shot themselves at a McDonald's.
  • In the late 1920's they decided to commit murder just to see if they could commit the "perfect crime."
  • They killed their parents in the early 1990's at point-blank with a shot gun.

Question 25

Question
What is a stimulus?
Answer
  • Presenting a stimuli (ex. food, water, sexual contact, etc).
  • Any change in the psychological condition of an animal.
  • Any reaction.

Question 26

Question
What is a positive reinforcement?
Answer
  • Presenting a stimuli (ex. food, water, sexual contact, etc)
  • Any change in the psychological condition of the animal.
  • Removing stimuli (ex. a loud noise, bright lights, extreme heat or cold, electric shock, etc.)

Question 27

Question
What is an example of economic or social determinism?
Answer
  • Identical twins raised apart and know nothing of eachother, yet both have very identical lives and lifestyles.
  • Scientific and technological developments have a great deal of influence on the economic status of cultures and their members, probably more than economics itself has upon science and technology.
  • Oedipus complex and the Electra complex. When a defense lawyer claims that their client raped and killed a number of victims because all the victims resembled the clients mother and his unconcious hatred of his mother compelled him to commit the crimes.

Question 28

Question
According to Satre, why is life absurd?
Answer
  • He claims that there is no God and life is meaningless on an objective scale, but that does not conclude that everything is permitted. Since we cannot look to a source outside of time to guarantee our moral values, we must make them up ourselves. And this doesn't mean anything goes, because our measure of our values is whether we could imagine others looking to us as role models.
  • He claims that if we ever knew enough about people (human nature), then we could predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past world would yield 100% accuracy in predicting future events and understanding past events in terms of human actions.
  • There is no God to (objectively) uphold our values, so life is absurd in that there is no underlying meaning or direction to life to be found anywhere outside of ourselves (so subjectively).

Question 29

Question
The criticisms of behaviorism are: 1) Behaviorism is counter intuitive. 2) There is something profoundly repugnant (to our morality) about the behaviorist program of "controlling" others. 3)The moral problem raised by behaviorism so denial of "mentalism" is profound because: * It denies the existence of a spiritual life. * It denies we are morally accountable.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
What is indeterminsm? Define it.
Answer
  • A metaphysical concept referring to the very nature of human reality. We can make choices based on rational weighing of pros and cons, and if we choose something that goes against the rules, we can be held accountable.
  • At any given time we can choose to go in a direction other than the one we are going in, (regardless of heredity and environment). Our will-power can trump the deterministic forces because it's nature is different from that of the physical world. It claims that there is a certain amount of chance and freedom in the world. That not everything is caused and that there is a real pluralism in reality. Furthermore, they claim that most of the freedom can be found in area of human deliberation and choice, especially moral deliberation and decision making.
  • Every effect, event, and result that occurs in reality has a cause or causes. There is no such thing ad an uncaused effect, event, or result. Humans do not have free will.

Question 31

Question
What is Jean-Paul Satre's theory of existence "for itself"?
Answer
  • The second sort of being is what characterizes human conciousness. Humans with the capacity for self-awareness and responsibility for ones actions.
  • Things and animals which have no free will. Such things will exist without any awareness that they exist.

Question 32

Question
What is Jean-Paul Satre's theory of existence "in itself"?
Answer
  • Things and animals which have no free will. Such things will exist without any awareness that they exist.
  • The second sort of being is what characterizes human conciousness. Humans with the capacity for self-awareness and responsibilities for one's actions.

Question 33

Question
What are the extenuating circumstances that supposedly lessen Loeb's moral responsibility?
Answer
  • (Even though he was apparently lacking any physical problems). 1) Any psychiatrist claimed that he had a "split personality", and was without feelings of empathy for others. 2) His wealthy parents seemed to care little for quality time with their son, but hired a strict governess to basically bring him up. 3) The governess did her best, forcing him to read classics that he had no interest in. Instead, he devoured crime novels (on e sly) and grew skilled at being secretive.
  • 1) He was forced to go to a girls school that (according to Darrow) embarrassed him. 2) He had grandular irregularities that (in Darrows opinion) affected his judgement. 2) His parents hired a governess who abused him sexually. 4) He had read (the German philosopher) Nietzhe and embraced Nietzhe's theory that some brilliant people aren't bound by morals or conventions (uber-men). -This mixed-up boy fell in love with another mixed up boy.

Question 34

Question
What are the extenuating circumstances that supposedly lessen Leopold's moral responsibility?
Answer
  • 1)He was forced to go to a girls school that (according to Darrow) embarrassed him. 2) He had grandular irregularities that (in Darrow's opinion) affected his judgement. 3) His parents hired a governess who abused him sexually. 4) He had read the (the German Philiosoper) Nietzche and embraced the theory that some brilliant people aren't bound by morals or conventions (uber-men). - This mixed up boy fell in love with another mixed up boy.
  • (Even though he was apparently lacking any physical problems). 1) Any psychiatrist would have claimed that he had a "split personality" and was without feelings of empathy for others. 2) His wealthy parents seemed to care little for quality time with their son, but hired a strict governess to basically bring him up. 3) The governess did her best, forcing him to read classics that he had no interest in. Instead, he devoured crime novels (on the sly) and grew skilled at being secretive.

Question 35

Question
Fatalism: The view that all events are irrevocably fixed and predetermined so that they cannot be altered in any way by human beings -the future is always beyond their control. The belief (not to be confused with determinism), that deleberation and action are pointless because the future will be the same no matter what we do.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
What is freedom as a lived experience and what is its flaw?
Answer
  • It may be that every spark of decisions making is completely determined by our heredity and or environment. But it doesn't feel that way. Since it seems like we make decisions and can (and may) be held responsible for them, it doesn't matter whether freedom is an illusion, only that it is experience which counts. Flaws: When we discover something is an illusion, we stop paying attention to it, since it is not real. People are in jail because they made the free choice to commit a crime.
  • Also know as compatiblism. It doesn't deny that there is cause and effect, but claims that human decisions still contain some measure of freedom.
  • If the mind is governed by forces of causality, it does not lead to predictability. Because within the mind determining our decisions are so complex that our actions have become unpredictable.

Question 37

Question
What is soft determinism? Define it.
Answer
  • Also known as compatiblism, doesn't deny that there is cause and effect, but claims that human decisions still contain some measure of freedom. Claims that there is universal causation, but (unlike hard determinism) they claim that some of the causation originates with human beings, thus giving meaning to the phrase "human freedom." The theory that human beings are both determined and as free as long as their actions proceed from their inner choices and are not compelled by an external cause.
  • Claims that if we knew 100% about people (human nature) then we could predict their every move. Speculates that 100% knowledge about the past world would yield in 100% accuracy in predicting the future events and understanding past events in terms of human actions.
  • The view that all events are irrevocably fixed and predetermined so that they cannot be altered by humans in anyway.

Question 38

Question
What extenuating circumstance was given to supposedly lessen the Menendez brothers' moral responsibility?
Answer
  • In their first trial (resulting in a jury being hung), they claimed they killed their parents because they had been physically abused for years and were afraid their father was planning to kill them.
  • In the aftermath, their mom tried to sue McDonald's claiming that her sons had suffered chemical imbalance due to eating too many Big Macs.
  • Their lawyer said they weren't to blame because they were on a 'sugar high' from eating too many twinkies.
  • Their parents were neglectful and had hired a sexually abusive governess to raise them.

Question 39

Question
The meaning of the Spanish proverb "Que sera, sera," means : Whatever will be, will be.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
What crime did Lorena Bobbit commit?
Answer
  • Bobbit responded to what appears to have been a long period of abuse by her husband, by getting up one night and cutting off his penis with a kitchen knife.
  • Bobbit killed both of her parents at point-blank range with a shot gun after being abused for years and being fearful that her father was planning to kill her.
  • Bobbit killed more then 20 people and then killed herself at a McDonalds.

Question 41

Question
Free will and determinsm are contradictory because while determinism claims that humans have no free will and that any sequence of effects, events, or results correlate with the law of universal causation, free will claims that we can pretty much make our own choices acquire a desired outcome/result. Determinism argues that everything has a cause or causes and that free will and choices will not change the future.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 42

Question
What does the chess game analogy say about causality?
Answer
  • The analogy is a variant of soft determinsm, with a slightly different focus. Chess analogy: even if the mind is governed by the forces of causality, it does not lead to predictability. Because causes within the mind determining our decisions are so complex that our actions (in effect) become unpredictable even though they could theoretically be mapped (if we knew enough). Just as a chess game piece has a multitude of possible moves, according to the rules, and one could theoretically predict each move (if one could oversee all possibilities), yet it is not possible in practice.
  • The view that all events are irrevocably fixed and predetermined so that they cannot be altered in any way by human beings-the future is always beyond our control.
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