What is the difference between phonetics and phonology ?
[blank_start]Phonetics[blank_end]: the study of sounds, how they are produced
[blank_start]Phonology[blank_end]: the sound system of a language. Inventory of sound and rules for their combination.
List all the bilabials. Bilabials are articulated by bringing both lips together.
Lis all labiodentals. We articulate these sounds by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
List all interdentals. We articulate these by inserting the tip of the tongue between the teeth.
[[blank_start]θ[blank_end]] both, think
[[blank_start]ð[blank_end]] this, mother
List all alveolars. These sounds are articulated with the tongue raised un various ways to the alveolar ridge.
[[blank_start]ɹ[blank_end]] remember to use the upside down ɹ instead of the regular r
List all palatals. These are produced by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate.
[j] use j instead of y
List all velars. These are produced by raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate.
List all glottals. These are articulated by stopping completely the air flow at the glottis and upon release is the glottal sound.
List all english rounded vowels. These vowels are produced with pursed or rounded lips.
What is a diphthongs?
It is a sequence of two [blank_start]vowel[blank_end] sounds.
Nasalization of vowels. Are vowels that are produced with a raised [blank_start]velum[blank_end] that prevents the air from escaping through the nose.
Tense and lax vowels. Tense vowels are [blank_start]longer[blank_end] in duration, generally than lax vowels.
"We may view Ma Shaw's fur coat." (All tense vowels)
"Big Ben had cooked the butter." (all lax vowels)
Tone in languages. Tone languages such as Chinese use tone to intonate a different word. Intonation is used to give sense of a [blank_start]question[blank_end] for example.
Phonetics of signed languages
Parameters in signed language
- p[blank_start]alm orientation[blank_end]
- h[blank_start]and shape[blank_end]
Remember the difference between phonetics and phonology.
Phonetic deals with the production of sounds and phonology deals with how language organizes sounds and their rules to such organization.
Complementary distribution vs Contrastive distribution
Complementary distribution occurs when two sounds occur in two [blank_start]different[blank_end] environments and are not present in each others environment. Also, they will not be [blank_start]NO[blank_end] minimal pairs if the sounds are complementary. If this is the case, then you have two [blank_start]allophones[blank_end] of the same phoneme. One being the underlying phoneme, which for the most part is the allophone which is less restrictive.
Contrastive distribution is when two sounds can occur in the [blank_start]same[blank_end] environment thus having minimal pairs. If this is the case, then you have two complete different [blank_start]phonemes[blank_end].
Phonetic analysis problems. For practice, look at the homework "Phonology: phonological rules" from our assignments. You are given a data set that includes transcribed words from a specific language. Your task for example may be to decide whether such allophones [x] and [x] are of the same phoneme or if each allophone are of a separate phonemes. Follow the steps
Step 1: look for minimal pairs
Step 2: if minimal pairs are found, then you conclude that the sounds are of contrastive distribution and that you have two separate [blank_start]phonemes[blank_end]
Step 1: look for minimal pairs
Step 2: if you do NOT have minimal pairs, then you conclude that you have sounds of complementary distributions and they are [blank_start]allophones[blank_end] of the same phoneme.
Minimal pairs are two swords (or more) that have identical IPA transcriptions except for [blank_start]one[blank_end] phoneme that occurs in the same position in each word.