A&P 227 Exam 6

Mary Roth
Quiz by Mary Roth, updated more than 1 year ago
Mary Roth
Created by Mary Roth over 5 years ago
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Description

North Idaho College A&P 227 Exam 6 Practice Test

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
_______________ autonomic axons exit the CNS at the thoracic level
Answer
  • all
  • Vagus
  • All reflex
  • Sympathetic
  • Rest/digest

Question 2

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the arachnoid is the strongest of the meningeal layers
  • the subarachnoid space drains into the 4th ventricle
  • arachnoid villi return CSF to the blood
  • the epidural space is found above the brain
  • most of the CSF flows in the epidural space

Question 3

Question
Which is true about all preganglionic cell bodies from both ANS divisions?
Answer
  • are within the CNS
  • all possess epinephrine receptors
  • found in ganglia
  • found in the ventral root
  • found in the dorsal root ganglion

Question 4

Question
Which is true about CSF?
Answer
  • moves from the ventricles into the choroid plexus
  • flows from 3rd into lateral ventricle, then into the 4th
  • moves into the blood from the subarachnoid space
  • flows from capillaries into the arachnoid villi
  • it is produced by arachnoid villi

Question 5

Question
Thoraci-splanchnic nerves contain _____________
Answer
  • somatic postganglionic axons
  • parasympathetic preganglionic axons
  • parasympathetic postganglionic axon terminals
  • sympathetic preganglionic axons
  • sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic axons

Question 6

Question
Which is true about terminal ganglia?
Answer
  • they are the lumps we find in sympathetic nerves
  • close to sympathetic target organs
  • can be found at the distal end of cranial nerve X
  • located to the side of the spinal cord
  • found at the end of all splanchnic nerves

Question 7

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • the brain does not discriminate ANS pain well
  • the stomach is an example of sympathetic-only control
  • blood vessels are parasympathetic only organs
  • renal activity decreases when parasympathetic stimulation increases
  • flight/flight causes gastric blood vessel dilation

Question 8

Question
Which of the following release ACh?
Answer
  • parasympathetic postganglionic axons
  • all parasympathetic effectors
  • sympathetic postganglionic neurons and effectors
  • postganglionic dendrites
  • all preganglionic neurons plus parasympathetic effectors

Question 9

Question
Which is true about alpha receptors?
Answer
  • sometimes called nicotinic receptors
  • found on all sympathetic dendrites
  • found on sympathetic axonal endings
  • they are examples of a muscarinic receptor
  • usually stimulatory

Question 10

Question
Which is true about sympathetic circuits?
Answer
  • localized effects with a short duration
  • long lasting and widespread effects
  • short duration with widespread effects
  • most organs are controlled by sympathetic-only circuits
  • exhibit widespread effects if in pelvic splanchnic nerves

Question 11

Question
Choose the correct phrase about muscarinic receptors?
Answer
  • they release muscarine or ACh
  • they are found on all postganglionic dendrites
  • mostly found on somatic effectors
  • would be found in reproductive organs
  • found only on parasympathetic postganglionic dendrites

Question 12

Question
Which is a sympathetic-only function?
Answer
  • heart rate control
  • gastric control
  • releasing an enzyme from the kidney
  • respiratory control
  • reproductive function

Question 13

Question
Which area would be considered the main ANS control center?
Answer
  • hypothalamus
  • medulla oblongata
  • spinal cord segments
  • thalamus
  • epithalamus

Question 14

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • white ramus contains somatic axons
  • dorsal root contains preganglionic axons
  • ventral roots that serve lumbar sacral nerves contain vagus axons
  • ventral horn contains motor cell bodies
  • gray ramus contains preganglionic axons

Question 15

Question
What would happen if we cut cranial nerve ten?
Answer
  • all parasympathetic function would cease
  • heart rate would decrease if the person enters fight/flight
  • heart rate would immediately increase
  • there will be a problem with blood vessel control
  • we would lose sympathetic control to a large part of the body

Question 16

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • spinal nerves split into dorsal and ventral roots after exiting the intervertebral foramina
  • ventral rami serve skin and muscles of the back
  • plexuses arise from the junction of a dorsal and ventral root
  • spinal nerves are branching networks formed by the junction of adjacent ventral rami
  • ventral rami contain more axons than dorsal rami

Question 17

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • filum terminale is the cone shaped tip of the spinal cord
  • conus medularis is a modification of the pia mater
  • filum terminale is a C.T. extension of the dura mater
  • conus medularis does not extend to the top of the sacrum
  • cauda equina anchor the spinal cord in position

Question 18

Question
What would the brain perceive if 5 mV was applied to a thermo receptor?
Answer
  • an IPSP
  • heat
  • an electrical shock somewhere in the body
  • pain
  • nothing

Question 19

Question
Choose the correct phrase?
Answer
  • the surface of an axon is wrapped with endomysium
  • epineurium wraps an entire tract
  • perineurium wraps an entire nerve
  • endoneurium directly touches neurofibrils
  • endoneurium is found in splanchnic nerves

Question 20

Question
Which terms belong with each other?
Answer
  • efferent - ascending - sensory
  • afferent - dorsal root - sensory
  • efferent - motor - dorsal root
  • ascending - sensory - efferent
  • descending - dorsal root - efferent

Question 21

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • dorsal root ganglia contain postganglionic cell bodies
  • all ganglia belong to one of the ANS branches
  • terminal ganglia are associated with efferent pathways
  • paravertebral ganglia are associated with rest/digest functions
  • prevertebral and terminal ganglia are both sympathetic

Question 22

Question
Which is a free sensory ending?
Answer
  • proprioceptors
  • itch receptor
  • Meisner corpuscle
  • Pascinian corpuscle
  • muscle spindle

Question 23

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • perceptual detection is the highest stage of sensory processing
  • transduction occurs at the receptor level
  • generator potentials are at least 30 mV
  • receptor potentials are all-or-none
  • processing at receptor level is higher than processing at circuit level

Question 24

Question
What would happen if we apply muscarine to the ANS?
Answer
  • all postganglionic neurons would release neurotransmitter
  • all sympathetic effects will be stimulated
  • the intestines will experience increased activity
  • presynaptic neurons will be prevented from firing
  • postganglionic neurons will be inhibited

Question 25

Question
Which is the highest level of sensory processing?
Answer
  • perceptual processing
  • understanding the location of a stimulus
  • knowing the strength of a stimulus
  • being able to distinguish between submodes
  • transduction

Question 26

Question
Which reflex is ipsilateral and contralateral?
Answer
  • stretch
  • deep tendon
  • crossed extensor
  • flexor
  • ANS

Question 27

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • specific ascending pathways relay body position information
  • perceptual detection occurs in the diencephalon
  • all ascending pathways terminate in the frontal cortex
  • fixed action patterns are physical circuitry in the spinal cord
  • spinothalamic tracts are sensory

Question 28

Question
We discussed the magnitude estimation in relation to
Answer
  • feature abstraction
  • perceptual level processing
  • quality discrimination
  • transduction
  • magnitude estimation

Question 29

Question
The tenth cranial nerve contributes to all of the following plexuses except
Answer
  • aortic
  • esophageal
  • pulmonary
  • intestinal
  • it does not contribute to any of these plexuses

Question 30

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • CPGs are part of the autonomic nervous system
  • basal nuclei are always sensory
  • association circuits in the spinal cord are called specific descending pathways
  • CPGs are mostly found in the hypothalamus
  • determining texture requires feature abstraction

Question 31

Question
Interneuron (association) cell bodies of the spinal cord are found in
Answer
  • white matter of the spinal cord
  • dorsal root
  • posterior horn
  • ventral horn
  • ventral root

Question 32

Question
Which of the following would help us perceive the texture of marble?
Answer
  • pressure receptors
  • Golgi tendon organs
  • proprioceptors
  • photoreceptors
  • muscle spindles

Question 33

Question
What is meant by the phrase: antagonistic autonomic interactions?
Answer
  • organs receive innervation from both branches of the ANS
  • when one branch of the ANS increases an activity, the other decreases it
  • constant partial stimulation occurs, even at rest
  • vasomotor tone is in effect
  • sympathetic can override parasympathetic

Question 34

Question
Which is true of nervous tissue repair?
Answer
  • Wallerian degeneration would only occur in the CNS
  • tracts may repair but nerves do not
  • oligodendrocytes form the regrowth tunnel in the CNS
  • axon growth rate is 1-5 cm per day
  • distal damage is more likely to successfully repair than proximal

Question 35

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • oculomotor - nerve II
  • trigeminal - nerve VI
  • trochlear - nerve VI
  • abducens - nerve XI
  • vestibulocochlear - nerve VIII

Question 36

Question
Which of the following is not considered an ANS effectors?
Answer
  • iris of the eye
  • smooth muscle
  • intestines
  • rectus abdominis
  • sweat glands

Question 37

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • somatic postganglionic axons are found in the dorsal root
  • sympathetic postganglionic axons are in thoracolumbar roots
  • all ganglia contain synapses
  • nicotinic receptors are on dendrites found in sympathetic ganglia
  • postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies are found in the brain stem

Question 38

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • the opthalmic branch of trochlear nerve serves the eyes
  • oculomotor serves only oblique eye muscles
  • accessory nerve controls speech and swallowing
  • trochlear nerve controls oblique eye muscles
  • none of these is true

Question 39

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • all preganglionic dendrites possess cholinergic receptors
  • adrenergic receptors are found on postganglionic sympathetic neurons
  • muscarinic receptors are found on parasympathetic postganglionic dendrites
  • glands are autonomic effectors
  • sympathetic effectors all release norepinephrine

Question 40

Question
Which is correct?
Answer
  • the phrenic nerve is found in the brachial plexus
  • the sacral plexus contains the femoral nerve
  • the lumbar plexus contains the sciatic nerve
  • the "funny bone" is the ulna
  • the median nerve serves flexors

Question 41

Question
Choose the correct order of an autonomic reflex arc
Answer
  • receptor, stimulus, integration center, effector
  • sensory neuron, receptor, integration center, motor neuron, effector
  • receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, pre-ganglionic, postganglionic, effector
  • stimulus, receptor, cerebellum, motor neuron, effector
  • pre-ganglionic, postganglionic, stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, integration center

Question 42

Question
Which of the following is the shortest?
Answer
  • sympathetic preganglionic axons
  • parasympathetic preganglionic axons
  • most sensory neurons
  • sympathetic postganglionic axons
  • parasympathetic postganglionic axons

Question 43

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • we are under parasympathetic dominance most of the time
  • thermoregulation is a parasympathetic-only function
  • parasympathetic can override sympathetic under most conditions
  • the heart is under sympathetic dominance most of the time
  • most of the ANS control comes from the cerebral cortex

Question 44

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • sensation is defined as approximately 1% of the total stimuli
  • all motor neuron cell bodies are in the CNS
  • reducing blood glucose level is due to sympathetic activity
  • 100% of sensation normally reaches the sensory cortex
  • fight/flight activity causes decreased norepinephrine release

Question 45

Question
a muscle spindle would be classified as a
Answer
  • chemoreceptor
  • visceroceptor
  • pressoceptor
  • exteroceptor
  • nociceptor

Question 46

Question
Which is true of a muscle spindle?
Answer
  • they fire IPSPs when a muscle is stretched
  • they are a form of pressure receptor
  • send information to the cerebellum
  • they fire an action potential when the muscle is relaxed
  • considered to be the same as a golgi tendon organ

Question 47

Question
Which of the following is a complex receptor?
Answer
  • muscle spindle
  • joint kinesthetic receptor
  • the ear
  • photoreceptor
  • golgi tendon organ

Question 48

Question
Which of the following is stimulated by histamine?
Answer
  • itch receptor
  • Ruffini's corpuscle
  • Meisner corpuscle
  • Merkel disc
  • nociceptor

Question 49

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • there are a total of 31 spinal nerves
  • capillaries in the blood/brain barrier have the thinnest basement membranes
  • gap junctions are found in blood/brain barrier capillaries
  • spinal cord columns are gray matter
  • spinocerebellar tracts inform the cerebellum of body position

Question 50

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • hemiplegia can also be called a spinal cord transect
  • paraplegia always affects the lower limbs
  • a cord transection in the T5 region results in quadriplegia
  • paraplegia can affect either the upper or lower limbs
  • none of these is true

Question 51

Question
Which is true about water?
Answer
  • it is a compound but not a molecule
  • does not participate in chemical reactions
  • called cytoplasm if found intercellularly
  • none is true

Question 52

Question
Select the correct match
Answer
  • hallux - little finger
  • sural - calf
  • popliteal - elbow
  • crural - forehead
  • brachial - forearm

Question 53

Question
Choose the best statement
Answer
  • RNA is produced in the cytoplasm and used in the nucleus
  • damage to DNA in one liver cell will kill the liver
  • RNA is nice to have in a cell, but not necessary
  • RNA must not be damaged or the cell will die
  • damage to DNA is potentially deadly to a cell

Question 54

Question
Aldosterone is built from
Answer
  • an organic compound
  • glucose
  • phospholipid
  • triglyceride
  • amino acids

Question 55

Question
Which of the following is the location of the urinary bladder?
Answer
  • epigastric
  • lumbar
  • iliac
  • hypochondriac
  • hypogastric

Question 56

Question
Which of the following is true regarding membrane potential?
Answer
  • voltage is chemical kinetic energy
  • membrane potential is considered kinetic energy
  • membrane potential is a form of mechanical energy
  • membrane potential is an osmotic process
  • a semipermeable membrane is required for membrane potential

Question 57

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the brain is found in the ventral cavity
  • a reasonable name for the ventral cavity could be: inferior cavity
  • the thoracic cavity is interior to the abdominal cavity
  • the ventral cavity is superior to the dorsal cavity
  • the dorsal cavity is posterior to the ventral cavity

Question 58

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • AB --> A + B is an example of an exergonic reaction
  • CD --> C + D is a synthesis reaction
  • A + B --> AB is a decomposition reaction
  • A+B+C+D --> AB + CD is an exchange reaction
  • an single enzyme catalyzes many different reaction types

Question 59

Question
Which is true about fats?
Answer
  • the term "polyunsaturated" means many double covalent bonds
  • saturated fat - contain no oxygen at all
  • triglycerides contain a fatty acid plus 3 glycerols
  • phospholipids are charged at the lipid end
  • neutral fat - contains only charged phospholipid

Question 60

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • glucose is considered a compound and contains oxygen
  • an organelle is the smallest living structure in the body
  • enzymes are alive but antibodies are not
  • antibodies are considered living organic compounds
  • DNA is an inorganic compound

Question 61

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the cell membrane is typically impermeable to everything except opxygen
  • cell membranes are composed mostly of triglycerides and some cholesterol
  • cell membranes are constructed of phosphocholesterol
  • phosphotriglycerides are required to stabilize the membrane
  • plasma membrane pores are transmembrane proteins

Question 62

Question
Which of the following is correctly matched?
Answer
  • olecranal - hand
  • femoral - leg
  • acromial - point of the elbow
  • cubital - heel
  • pollex - thumb

Question 63

Question
Which is a structural protein?
Answer
  • elastin
  • antibody
  • enzyme
  • hormone
  • all are structural

Question 64

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • osmosis requires ATP under some circumstances
  • high solute concentration results in high osmotic pressure
  • the Na/K pump is a form of facilitated diffusion
  • osmosis is the bulk transport of water
  • water wants to move away from solutes

Question 65

Question
Choose the correct phrase about control mechanisms
Answer
  • maintaining a set point is characteristic of negative feedback
  • most normal control mechanisms are positive feedback
  • blood pressure is under positive feedback control
  • sweating when too cold is an example of negative feedback
  • homeostatic imbalance is usually a form of negative feedback

Question 66

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • manus - hand
  • mental - forehead
  • fibular - part of the forearm
  • leg - antebrachium
  • caudal - another name for foot

Question 67

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • cholesterol is required to convert an enzyme to fat
  • sucrase is an example of a carbohydrase
  • most lipids are inorganic
  • organic glucose is better for you than inorganic glucose
  • amino acids are inorganics that contain nitrogen

Question 68

Question
Choose the best statement
Answer
  • life processes require a fast rate of chemical reactions
  • people survive longer than normal without oxygen IF their body has been rapidly warmed
  • cold will increase the rate of diffusion
  • higher solute concentration means slower chemical rates
  • smaller particle size means slower chemical reaction rates

Question 69

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • desmosomes can be found in the skin
  • tight junctions are found in the heart
  • microvilli are attached to the cell by tight junctions
  • desmosomes possess connexons
  • microvilli increase membrane potential

Question 70

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • similar charges are attracted to each other
  • 6 electrons are being shared in a triple covalent bond
  • weight is always the same as mass
  • opposite charges repel each other
  • hydrogen bonds are stronger than ionic bonds

Question 71

Question
Choose the correct phrase about membrane transport
Answer
  • increasing particle size will increase the reaction rate
  • active membrane transport is powered by ADP
  • enzymes are necessary for all forms of membrane transport
  • phagocytosis is a good example of an active process
  • called passive if the substance goes up its concentration gradient

Question 72

Question
Which is true when comparing a red blood cell to a solution?
Answer
  • a red blood cell in a hypertonic solution will gain net water
  • a red blood cell in a hypotonic solution will stay the same size
  • a red blood cell in a hypotonic solution will look like a raisin
  • a red blood cell in an isotonic solution will gain water
  • a red blood cell in a hypertonic solution will shrink

Question 73

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • meninges are found in the dorsal cavity
  • parietal peritoneum is found covering an organ
  • parietal pleura lines the inside of the lungs
  • visceral pericardium covers the lung
  • pleural membranes are found on the heart

Question 74

Question
Which of the following planes could generate sections that contain tissue from BOTH kidneys?
Answer
  • parasagittal and transverse
  • midsagittal and frontal
  • frontal and transverse
  • parasagittal and frontal
  • frontal, sagittal, and transverse

Question 75

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • a proton is an anion
  • chemical synthesis is an endergonic process
  • triglyceride contains one phosphate plus 2 fatty acids
  • bulk transport is an exergonic process
  • triglyceride could be called an anion

Question 76

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • peripheral proteins are involved in cell recognition
  • some integral proteins are involved in cell recognition
  • proteins "float" in the phospholipid bilayer
  • peripheral proteins are attached to the surface of the membrane
  • all of these are correct

Question 77

Question
Choose the correct phrase about the standard anatomical position
Answer
  • palms face posteriorly
  • hands are on the midline
  • heels are pointed laterally
  • head is facing dorsally
  • the little finger is medial to the thumb

Question 78

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • lipids contain much oxygen
  • monosaccharides are also called simple sugars
  • sucrose is an example of a polysaccharide
  • maltose is a sucrose monosaccharide
  • testosterone is a steroid enzyme

Question 79

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • the frontal plane physically divides the body into equal right and left parts
  • a transverse plane physically divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  • a parasagittal plane physically divides the heart into equal halves
  • a frontal plane could go through the nose
  • a microscope is used to view plane

Question 80

Question
Which of the following is correct?
Answer
  • right hypochondriac region is in the lower right quadrant
  • left iliac region is superior to left lumbar region
  • right lumbar region is lateral to umbilical region
  • epigastric region is inferior to the hypochondriac region
  • lumbar region is superior to hypochondriac region

Question 81

Question
Which of the following is an inorganic that contains nitrogen?
Answer
  • monosaccharide
  • water
  • protein
  • triglyceride
  • ammonia

Question 82

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • the hand is medial to the thorax
  • the knees are inferior
  • the eyes are superior
  • the carpal is distal to the olecranal
  • the wrist is proximal to the elbow

Question 83

Question
Which is true about protein denaturation?
Answer
  • cold typically causes it
  • cooling the protein will reverse the denaturation
  • affects all levels of protein structure except primary
  • covalent bonds are always broken
  • a pH of 7.0 will probably cause denaturation

Question 84

Question
What do we fin in the dorsal body cavity?
Answer
  • stomach and intestines
  • lungs and heart
  • brain
  • spinal cord and trachea
  • all are true

Question 85

Question
Which is an example of a positive feedback mechanism?
Answer
  • sweating starts as body temperature rises
  • heart rate decreases when body activity level decreases
  • rising blood glucose causes increased insulin release
  • heart rate rises when exercise level increases
  • the air conditioner starts when the room becomes cold

Question 86

Question
Assume we have high osmotic pressure being measured in an experiment. Which is true?
Answer
  • the membrane is permeable to water
  • osmotic pressure will rise if we cut a hole in the membrane
  • more water will move toward the dilute side
  • solutes are moving through the membrane
  • osmotic pressure will rise if we make the membrane fully permeable

Question 87

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • exocytosis requires ATP
  • visceral membranes are a form of meninges
  • all cells have the same shape
  • high metabolism means slow rates of chemical reactions
  • synthesizing RNA is an exergonic process

Question 88

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • RNA is a single stranded sequence of amino acids
  • hydrogen bonds form the primary structure of DNA
  • only covalent bonds are found in DNA
  • hydrogen bonds are found in tertiary protein structure
  • RNA is held together by H-bonds

Question 89

Question
Choose the correct phrase about covalent bonds
Answer
  • they bond water molecules to each other
  • easily broken by heat and acid
  • can be found in the structure of RNA
  • created when one atom takes an electron from another
  • an example is the attraction between sodium and chloride ions

Question 90

Question
What do we know about the root term?
Answer
  • the substance is an enzyme
  • we use the term to describe phospholipids
  • the material is an enzyme built from lipid
  • it is used to describe each RNA strand
  • none is correct

Question 91

Question
Which is true about RNA?
Answer
  • contains adenine and guanine
  • contains special covalent bonds called peptide bonds
  • is more complex than DNA
  • contains thymine
  • RNA is produced in the cytoplasm

Question 92

Question
Dissolved sugar in water is an example of a
Answer
  • suspension
  • solution
  • colloid
  • osmosis
  • none is true

Question 93

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • all organic molecules contain protons
  • the hydrogen nucleus contains 1 proton and 1 neutron
  • smaller atoms have smaller electrons
  • protons in lithium are larger than protons in sodium
  • all elements contain neutrons

Question 94

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • bases are always organic
  • a hydrogen ion can also be called a proton
  • a base is a compound that accepts sodium ions
  • acids are always organic
  • a potassium donor can be called an acid

Question 95

Question
Which of the following is true about a person that studies membrane transport mechanisms?
Answer
  • they would be called a cellular anatomist
  • their field of study is cell physiology
  • we might consider them to be a gross anatomist
  • they would be a microscopic anatomist
  • none is true

Question 96

Question
When the term homeostatic inbalance is used it is likely that
Answer
  • there is a slight deviation from a set point
  • negative feedback is causing a disease state
  • positive feedback is usually present
  • the body is heading toward a set point
  • none is true

Question 97

Question
Which of the following is a correct match?
Answer
  • inferior - also called caudal
  • superior - away from the head
  • lateral - toward the midline of the body
  • intermediate - on the midline
  • proximal - father away from the body trunk

Question 98

Question
Which is true about hydrogen bonds?
Answer
  • connects nucleotides together in RNA
  • connects the carbons together with glucose
  • repels the hydrogen end of one water from the oxygen end of another water
  • links amino acids in primary protein structre
  • connect the two strands of a DNA molecule to each oer

Question 99

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • small substances like oxygen require specific transmembrane pores
  • oxygen can move directly through a phospholipid bilayer
  • facilitated diffusion protein carriers require ATP
  • glucose moves by active diffusion
  • water moves easily though impermeable membranes

Question 100

Question
If a cell is hypotonic to a solution and it's membrane is permeable only to water
Answer
  • more water will leave the cell than enter it
  • solutes will move from the cell into the solution
  • solutes will move into the cell while water leaves the cell
  • solutes will move from the solution into the cell
  • more water will enter the cell than leave it

Question 101

Question
What is the best epithelial choice for the wall of a capillary?
Answer
  • simple squamous
  • simple cuboidal
  • simple columnar
  • pseudostratified
  • transitional

Question 102

Question
___________fibers would be the best choice to hold cells of lymph nodes together
Answer
  • dense irregular
  • reticular
  • dense regular
  • areolar connective tissue
  • white fibrous

Question 103

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • microvilli are a characteristic of pseudostratified epithelium
  • microvilli are found on all epithelial cells
  • goblet cells are found in transitional epithelium
  • glandular epithelium is considered to be stratified cuboidal
  • stratified columnar is relatively rare

Question 104

Question
Structures like the urinary bladder need __________ epithelium.
Answer
  • simple squamous
  • stratified squamous
  • stratified cuboidal
  • transitional
  • stratified columnar

Question 105

Question
All of the following are functions of bone except
Answer
  • support
  • protection
  • calcium production
  • fat storage
  • blood cell formation

Question 106

Question
Which of the following muscle types is voluntary?
Answer
  • smooth and skeletal
  • only skeletal
  • cardiac and smooth
  • skeletal and cardiac
  • skeletal and smooth

Question 107

Question
Nervous system cancers typically affect
Answer
  • neurons
  • neuroglia
  • nerves
  • macrophages
  • chondrocytes

Question 108

Question
Which is true about the integument?
Answer
  • the hypodermis is the innermost layer of the skin
  • it is a form of serous membrane
  • the papillary layer is superficial to the epidermis
  • it is also called a mucosal membrane
  • it is considered an epithelial membrane

Question 109

Question
Which stratum performs the highest rate of cell division?
Answer
  • corneum
  • lucidum
  • granulosum
  • spinosum
  • basale

Question 110

Question
A feature we call the anti-codon is found in
Answer
  • mRNA
  • tRNA
  • rRNA
  • DNA
  • the ribosome

Question 111

Question
Which skin cell produces a material that protect against UV?
Answer
  • keratinocytes
  • fibroblasts
  • hemocytoblasts
  • langerhan's cells
  • melanocytes

Question 112

Question
Which is true of a protein that is 200 amino acids long?
Answer
  • the RNA that coded for the protein was 203 nucleotides long
  • there were 201 codons in the mRNA that coded for the protein
  • it required 199 polyribosomes to make the protein
  • each tRNA must have possessed 201 anti-codons
  • each ribosome was 201 codons long

Question 113

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • holocrine glands secrete by exocytosis
  • sebaceous cells die when they secrete
  • sudoriferous glands are found mostly in the axillary and pubic areas
  • most endocrine glands perform holocrine secretion
  • goblet cells possess small multicellular ducts

Question 114

Question
Which glands empty into a follicle?
Answer
  • apocrine only
  • eccrine only
  • apocrine and eccrine
  • apocrine and sebaceous
  • sebaceous and eccrine

Question 115

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • goblet cells are the smallest of the multicellular glands
  • unicellular glands can be found in some simple columnar epithelia
  • multicellular glands are often called transitional
  • endocrine glands are typically simple coiled tubular
  • goblet cells are part of all mucosal membranes

Question 116

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • lacunae are the solid layers of calcified tissue found in bone
  • the central canal contains the largest osteocytes
  • perforating canals are found in hyaline cartilage
  • hyaline cartilage contains the lowest number of collagen fibers
  • canaliculi contain microscopic blood vessels and nerves

Question 117

Question
Which of the following is true about cutaneous membrane?
Answer
  • possesses a keratinized epithelium
  • integument lines cavities open to the outside environment
  • it is important in calcium production
  • consists of 3 layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
  • dense regular CT gives it it's strength

Question 118

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • hematopoietic tissue in adults is found in most long bones
  • the epiphyseal plate is characteristic of bones in children
  • perforating fibers connect the endosteum to the bone
  • endosteum consists entirely of osteoblasts
  • periosteum lines the cavities within bone

Question 119

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the osteogenic layer contains only osteoblasts
  • endosteum contains only osteoclasts
  • another name for spongy bone in flat bones is diploe
  • hyaline cartilage lines the medullary cavity
  • the fibrous layer of the periosteum mostly consists of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Question 120

Question
Which is the best choice of material for the fibrous periosteum?
Answer
  • dense irregular
  • elastic
  • dense regular
  • areolar
  • reticular

Question 121

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • red marrow is found in the osteons of infants
  • fetal bone contains a larger percentage inorganic materials than adult bone
  • lacunae are the solid rings of the bone found in Haversian systems
  • perforating canals run in the same direction as osteons
  • east osteon contains blood vessels and nerves

Question 122

Question
Which conditions must be met so translation can occur?
Answer
  • gene transcription must occur
  • tRNAs must match up with codons
  • mRNA must leave the nucleus
  • rRNA must be available
  • all are true

Question 123

Question
Choose the correct term-definition match
Answer
  • condyle - flat articular surface
  • epicondyle - pointed articular surface
  • process - rounded articular projection
  • foramen - depression in bone
  • none is correctly matched

Question 124

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • endosteal destruction is faster in osteomalacia
  • osteoporosis is also called "soft bones"
  • the chemical compositions of bone in osteoporosis is normal
  • remodeling occurs before the formation of the bony callus
  • rickets is a form of osteoporosis in children

Question 125

Question
Which is true about muscle tissue?
Answer
  • skeletal muscle is lightly striated
  • cardiac muscle cells possess many nuclei
  • smooth muscle is called "smooth" because the cell lacks striations
  • intercalated discs are a feature of smooth muscle
  • all of these are true

Question 126

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • osteoid is inorganic
  • osteocytes are part of the inorganic components of bone
  • 35% of bone composition is inorganic
  • 65% of bone composition is organic
  • bone can withstand 15,000 PSI tension

Question 127

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • trabeculae are part of compact bone
  • appositional growth is from within
  • all bones continue to grow throughout life
  • there are always exactly 206 bones in the skeleton
  • the girdles are part of the appendicular system

Question 128

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • arrector pilli are a form of involuntary muscle
  • a tiny skeletal muscle is connected to each hair follicle
  • the connective tissue root sheath is in contact with the hair
  • the hair is a dermal derrivative
  • vellus hairs are thick coarse hairs

Question 129

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • chromatin is tightly coiled DNA
  • DNA polymerase produces the mRNA strand
  • the nucleus is found within the nucleolus
  • a polyribosome consists of one mRNA with many ribosomes on it
  • DNA is in the chromosome form during translation

Question 130

Question
Which is a sharp, pointed projection
Answer
  • ramus
  • tuberosity
  • crest
  • spine
  • epicondyle

Question 131

Question
Which is true about bone remodeling?
Answer
  • PTH is part of mechanical remodeling
  • PTH stimulates osteoblast activity
  • PTH causes decreased blood calcium
  • PTH stimulates osteoclast activity
  • PTH does not have much of a function in humans

Question 132

Question
Which is found only on the femur?
Answer
  • tubercle
  • tuberosity
  • trochanter
  • crest
  • line

Question 133

Question
Which is a rounded articular projection?
Answer
  • spine
  • crest
  • line
  • condyle
  • epicondyle

Question 134

Question
The patella is a special form of __________ bone that develops within tendons
Answer
  • long
  • short
  • irregular
  • flat
  • None is correct

Question 135

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the costal cartilages are elastic
  • respiratory cartilages are formed of fibrocartilage
  • the external ear is hyaline cartilage
  • intervertebral discs are elastic cartilage
  • the menisci of the knee are fibrocartilage

Question 136

Question
Which are correctly paired regarding the skin
Answer
  • Langerhans - chemical protection
  • sweat - physical barrier
  • squamous cells - chemical barrier
  • fibroblasts - found in the dermis
  • none of these are correctly paired

Question 137

Question
Where does keratinization "officially" begin?
Answer
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum basale
  • stratum corneum
  • stratum lucidum

Question 138

Question
Which stage of repair involves macrophages cleaning up debris?
Answer
  • bony callus
  • fibrocartilage callus
  • hematoma
  • remodeling
  • macrophages are not involved in repair

Question 139

Question
Epithelia are considered polar because
Answer
  • their outer surface is positively charged and their inner surface is negatively charged
  • they always have a basal surface and an apical surface
  • their outer surface is negatively charged and their inner surface is positively charged
  • they are hydrophilic
  • they contain phospholipids

Question 140

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • all types of epithelial tissue stay together like sheets
  • cilia move things along the surface and are made of microfilaments
  • all connective tissue is very vascular
  • cartilage is vascular but has no nerve supply
  • none of these are true

Question 141

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • meatus - slit like opening
  • fossa - canal-like passage
  • foramen - furrow
  • groove - indentation at the edge of a structure
  • fossa - shallow depression

Question 142

Question
Which gives rise to the nail?
Answer
  • epithelial root sheath
  • nail matrix
  • nail bed
  • connective root sheath
  • eponychium

Question 143

Question
All apply to eccrine glands except
Answer
  • most common sweat gland
  • simple coiled tubular gland
  • empties into a hair follicle
  • performs merocrine secretion
  • functions in thermoregulation

Question 144

Question
Using the code below ___ amino acids will be placed and ___ codons were required. A-T-C-T-T-C-T-A-C-G-A-C-C-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G-T-A-G-G-T-T-A-T-T-A-T-T
Answer
  • 5, 6
  • 6, 7
  • 7, 8
  • 9, 10
  • None of these is correct

Question 145

Question
A flattened stack of sac-like membranes describes:
Answer
  • RER
  • SER
  • lysosomes
  • Golgi
  • centrioles

Question 146

Question
Disassembling the mitotic spindle is a characteristic of
Answer
  • metaphase
  • telophase
  • anaphase
  • prophase
  • cytokinesis

Question 147

Question
Carotene is found in the __________
Answer
  • epidermis
  • reticular layer
  • hypodermis
  • papillary layer
  • fibrous layer

Question 148

Question
Which is true of epithelia?
Answer
  • typically consists of closely packed cells
  • there is much ground substance and few cells
  • vascularity of epithelia varies
  • there are four basic cell shapes
  • stratified columnar is a common form of epithelium

Question 149

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • mitosis is the longest part of the cell cycle
  • DNA is synthesized during mitosis
  • DNA is duplicated during the G phase of the cell cycle
  • cytokinesis is called division of the cytoplasm
  • cells only perform their normal functions during mitosis

Question 150

Question
Which must be true of developing bone?
Answer
  • primary and secondary ossification occurs in endochondral formation
  • primary ossification occurs later than secondary
  • the epiphyseal line is a characteristic of fetal bone
  • primary ossification occurs in the epiphysis
  • most long bones form by intramembranous ossification

Question 151

Question
The H-zone is lighter in color than the rest of the A-band because
Answer
  • light only needs to go through myosin in the H-zone
  • light only needs to go through actin in the H-zone
  • the H-zone proteins are thinner than I-band proteins
  • of overlapping sarcomeres
  • actin plus myosin overlap in the H-zone

Question 152

Question
Which of the following muscles is named according to origin/insertion?
Answer
  • pectoralis major
  • brachioradialis
  • deltoid
  • adductor longus
  • biceps femoris

Question 153

Question
Which of the following is a characteristic of smooth muscle but not cardiac muscle?
Answer
  • Z-discs
  • calmodulin
  • possesses mitochondria
  • contains sarcoplasm
  • sarcomeres

Question 154

Question
Of these actions, which is the first effect of acetylcholine on a myofiber?
Answer
  • tropomyosin is moved by troponin
  • sodium gates open
  • split ATP to ADP
  • calcium gates open
  • myosin grabs actin

Question 155

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • the fibula bears only half the weight that the tibia does
  • of the two condyles of the tibia, fibula is closest to the medial condyle
  • the fibula is triangular in cross section
  • the patellar notch is found on the femur
  • medial malleolus is on the fibula

Question 156

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • sacroiliac joint is between sacrum and L5
  • iliac fossa is the socket of the hip
  • phalanges are classified as short bones
  • the tarsus contains the talus
  • ischial tuberosity is part of the femur

Question 157

Question
What would happen if AChE is removed from the neuromuscular junction yet ACh remains?
Answer
  • sodium gates in the sarcolemma would remain open
  • the all-or-none response would not occur
  • ATP would be depleted (to zero) in the neuron
  • the motor neuron would not be able to generate an impulse
  • the muscle cell would not be able to contract

Question 158

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • femur - largest bone in the upper limb
  • radius - head is distal
  • acromion - found on scapula
  • carpus - palm
  • fibula - proximal end possesses two condyles

Question 159

Question
A fulcrum of a lever system is the
Answer
  • weight that the muscle moves
  • load
  • distance from effort to resistance
  • point on which a lever moves
  • area where the muscle attaches

Question 160

Question
Which is the best match
Answer
  • multi-unit - small intestine
  • multi-unit - large intestine
  • multi-unit - stomach
  • multi-unit - blood vessel wall
  • single unit - iris of the eye

Question 161

Question
Which is true during a muscle twitch (in voluntary muscle)?
Answer
  • actin shortens
  • neither actin nor myosin shortens
  • ACh activates diffuse junctions
  • both actin and myosin shorten
  • myosin shortens

Question 162

Question
Which would be the best design to gain the most strength? A muscle with
Answer
  • long fibers in a second class lever system
  • short fibers attached close to the fulcrum of a third class lever system
  • long fibers in a first class lever system
  • long fibers attached close to the fulcrum in a third class lever system
  • short fibers in a mechanical advantage lever system

Question 163

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • perpendicular plate - ethmoid
  • parietal - posterior inferior part of the skull
  • sphenoid - tympanic region
  • sphenoid - foramen magnum
  • frontal - forms most of the cranium

Question 164

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • myofibers possess a wrapper called epimysium
  • endomysium surrounds individual myofibrils
  • endomysium covers fascicles
  • perimysium wraps fascicles
  • epimysium directly wraps fascicles

Question 165

Question
Of the list, which allows the most precise control of muscle force production?
Answer
  • the size of the muscle cell (larger diameter means better control)
  • motor units designed with many muscle cells per unit
  • a single neuron innervating an entire muscle
  • the largest number of neuron endings per motor unit
  • muscles with 4 muscle cells per motor unit

Question 166

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • gomphoses are an example of a diarthrotic joint
  • diarthroses are synovial
  • fibrous joints are amphiarthroses
  • sutures are considered amphiarthrotic
  • synarthroses are considered to be slightly movable

Question 167

Question
Choose the correct phase about the vertebral column
Answer
  • vertebrae possess processes
  • pedicles are located at the base of the spinous processes
  • the transverse process is on the midline of the vertebral body
  • the vertebral arch bears most of the weight
  • the vertebral foramen is posterior to the vertebral arch

Question 168

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • calcaneus possesses the lateral malleolus
  • talus is the heel
  • two large carpals support the weight of the body
  • Achilles tendon attaches to the calcaneus
  • metatarsus is the palm

Question 169

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • elastic cartilage is found at the anterior midline of the pelvis
  • the ischium is the largest flaring part of the pelvis
  • the tibial tuberosity is a feature of the femur
  • the heads of the metatarsals are the "knuckles" of a fist
  • none is true

Question 170

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • bursae are wrapped around tendons
  • the fibrous capsule of a tendon sheath is formed of dense regular CT
  • synovial membrane forms the superficial layer of a bursa
  • bursae are fibrous sacs filled with synovial fluid
  • tendon sheaths are built like synarthroses

Question 171

Question
Choose the correct match
Answer
  • ankle - is part of the leg
  • fibula - rotates
  • head of femur - distal
  • medial malleolus - part of the fibula
  • radius - lateral bone in anatomical position

Question 172

Question
Which of the following is named according to its shape?
Answer
  • gluteus medius
  • tibialis anterior
  • levator ventralis
  • temporalis
  • trapezius

Question 173

Question
Rigor mortis occurs because
Answer
  • calcium is not available for the power stroke
  • ATP is not available to release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • ATP is not available to detach myosin from actin
  • ATP is not available to reset the myosin ATPase
  • ATP is not available to attach myosin to actin

Question 174

Question
Cartilagenous joints can be found in which of the following categories?
Answer
  • diarthrosis and amphiarthrosis
  • synarthrosis and diarthrosis
  • synarthrosis only
  • amphiarthrosis only
  • amphiarthrosis and synarthrosis

Question 175

Question
Which of the following is an example of a purely isometric contraction?
Answer
  • riding a bicycle for a full day
  • lifting a book
  • running a marathon
  • walking carefully so that you do not become fatigued
  • unsuccessfully trying to lift a weight

Question 176

Question
Which is true about a striated myofiber that is contracting?
Answer
  • calcium gates in the SR are open
  • sodium gates are closed
  • ACh diffuses into the sarcoplasm
  • calmodulin has moved out of the way
  • Z-discs are shortening

Question 177

Question
Which is an example of a first-class lever system?
Answer
  • load in the middle, effort and fulcrum at either end
  • fulcrum and effort together at one end and load at the other
  • effort in the middle, fulcrum and load at either end
  • load and effort together at one end and fulcrum at the other
  • fulcrum in the middle and effort and resistance at either end

Question 178

Question
What is the definition of the origin of a muscle?
Answer
  • the distal attachment of a muscle to a structure
  • any attachment of muscle to bone
  • the attachment of a muscle to a structure that will be moving
  • the proximal attachment of a muscle to a structure
  • the attachment of a muscle to the stationary structure

Question 179

Question
Which bone helps in laryngeal movement?
Answer
  • hyoid
  • vomer
  • petrous portion
  • zygomatic
  • palatine

Question 180

Question
What would happen if a weight lifter began training to be a marathon runner?
Answer
  • the fibers would become less red in color
  • small red fibers would be transformed into intermediate fibers
  • the number of mitochondria in the fibers would decrease
  • the number of myofilaments in the fibers would increase
  • cell diameter would decrease

Question 181

Question
If a person was born with a long torso (like the one in lab), where would we find the extra vertebra?
Answer
  • lumbar
  • thoracic
  • cervical
  • sacral
  • coccygeal

Question 182

Question
Muscles are named according to their
Answer
  • shape
  • location in the body
  • origin and insertion points
  • action
  • all of these are correct

Question 183

Question
Which is true of myofibers?
Answer
  • they contract to 70% of their resting length
  • a long muscle cell is stronger than a short muscle cell
  • partial contraction is possible if there is a small amount of neurotransmitter released
  • they are graded rather than all-or-none
  • a short muscle cell is stronger than a long muscle cell

Question 184

Question
Which is the most reasonable about a muscle named Pronator teres?
Answer
  • involved in foot movement
  • turns palm anteriorly
  • named for its size
  • names for its shape
  • turns palm posteriorly

Question 185

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • the pelvis is the girdle for the lower limb
  • the femur is part of the leg
  • digit 1 is formed of three bones
  • the radius is part of the arm
  • none of these are correct

Question 186

Question
Why are striations seen in muscle tissue? Because of
Answer
  • the thin and thick areas of the sarcolemma
  • the stretching of the connective tissues
  • the shadow of the Z-disc
  • the way troponin and tropomyosin interact
  • the way that actin and myosin filaments overlap

Question 187

Question
Choose the correct matches about the arches of the foot
Answer
  • transverse - runs from ankle to toe
  • medial longitudinal - arches higher than the lateral longitudinal
  • medial longitudinal - same side as digit 5
  • lateral longitudinal - same side as digit 1
  • all of these are true

Question 188

Question
Which of the following is true?
Answer
  • petrous region of maxilla forms the bridge of the nose
  • vomer does not articulate with any other bone
  • palatine is the posterior 1/3 of the soft palate
  • sphenoid contains hypophyseal fossa
  • perpendicular plate is about the size of a fingernail

Question 189

Question
Choose the correct statement
Answer
  • vertebrosternal ribs are attached posteriorly to the sternum
  • vertebrosternal ribs are in between vertebrochondral and vertebral ribs
  • vertebrosternal ribs are the last 5 pair
  • floating ribs articulate posteriorly with lumbar vertebrae
  • the number of thoracic vertebrae typically does not vary from one person to the next

Question 190

Question
Which would result in the largest increase in muscle force production?
Answer
  • activate wave summation
  • applying more ACh to the synaptic cleft
  • stimulating the existing motor units more rapidly
  • stimulating the muscle cells to contract with more force
  • activating additional motor units

Question 191

Question
The all-or-none concept applies to
Answer
  • motor units and myofibers
  • whole muscle
  • muscle cells only
  • motor units and myofilaments
  • motor units only

Question 192

Question
Immediately after the voltage sensitive gates in the S.R. open
Answer
  • sodium endocytosis begins
  • sarcoplasmic calcium level rises
  • there is a dramatic decrease in ATP consumption
  • it's voltage-senstive sodium gates open
  • the myofiber pumps calcium into the interstitial area

Question 193

Question
Which is the agonist in forearm extension?
Answer
  • brachioradialis
  • trapezius
  • triceps femoris
  • triceps brachii
  • biceps brachii

Question 194

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • the joint capsule is formed of dense regular connective tissue
  • reinforcing ligaments are always found inside joints
  • the synovial membrane contains areolar connective tissue
  • the joint cavity is filled with hyaline cartilage
  • articular cartilage is usually fibrocartilage for strength reasons

Question 195

Question
Which phrase best describes a motor unit?
Answer
  • myofiber and all the neurons it stimulates
  • nerve and all the muscle cells it stimulates
  • neuron and all the myofilaments it stimulates
  • neuron and all the myofibers it stimulates
  • group of muscles working together

Question 196

Question
The lambdoidal suture is formed between the
Answer
  • two parietal bones on the midline of the skull
  • parietals and temporals
  • frontal and parietals
  • temporal and frontal
  • none is true

Question 197

Question
Which muscle has fascicle arrangement on a single side of a central tendon?
Answer
  • convergent
  • unipennate
  • circular
  • multipennate
  • parallel

Question 198

Question
What would happen if you applied a chemical that blocks ACh binding to muscle cells?
Answer
  • calcium will quickly flood the sarcoplasm
  • the neuron would no longer produce ACh
  • the neuron would not be capable of firing
  • voltage sensitive gates in the S.R. would not open
  • sodium would immediately enter the muscle cell

Question 199

Question
Which is true about smooth muscle?
Answer
  • contains troponin
  • does not respond to ACh
  • contains Z-discs
  • the stress-relaxation response is a characteristic
  • the cells are multinucleate

Question 200

Question
Choose the correct phase
Answer
  • nodding the head is a function of the atlas moving on the axis
  • the posterior inferior part of the coxal bone is called the ilium
  • trochlea is found on the ulna
  • the intervertebral foramen contains the spinal cord
  • maxillary bones are fused along the midline
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