Microbes in Industry

Quiz by marthas2705, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by marthas2705 about 4 years ago


undergrad Microbiology Quiz on Microbes in Industry, created by marthas2705 on 12/16/2015.

Resource summary

Question 1

Microbes are used in food, [blank_start]antibiotics[blank_end], molecular biology, bioremediation, industrial enzymes, genetic [blank_start]engineering[blank_end]. In ancient life microbial fermentation was used to preserve food. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION Bacteria ferment sugars to [blank_start]lactic acid[blank_end]. Accumilates lactic acid which [blank_start]inhibits[blank_end] growth of other organisms by [blank_start]denaturing[blank_end] cell proteins. Bacteria in acidic environments have special membrane [blank_start]pumps[blank_end] to ensure normal function. Unpasteurised milk undergoes spontaneous lactic acid fermentation.
  • antibiotics
  • engineering
  • lactic acid
  • denaturing
  • inhibits
  • pumps

Question 2

[blank_start]Lactococcus lactis[blank_end] is important in cheese manufacture. 1) lactic acid [blank_start]fermentation[blank_end] 2) pH drop makes milk [blank_start]precipitate[blank_end] (proteins [blank_start]unfold[blank_end]) 3) Proteins and [blank_start]fat[blank_end] form the curd which separates from whey 4) [blank_start]Ripening[blank_end] phase involving secondary microbial transformations. Milk protein is [blank_start]hydrolysed[blank_end] to amino acids, some are further fermented to organic acids and NH3, this is mediated by [blank_start]proteases[blank_end] released from [blank_start]dying[blank_end] lactic acid bacteria. 5) Some soft cheeses are ripened by growth of surface moulds.
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • fermentation
  • precipitate
  • unfold
  • fat
  • hydrolysed
  • proteases
  • dying
  • Ripening

Question 3

Ethanol fermentation is carried out by [blank_start]yeast[blank_end] under [blank_start]anaerobic[blank_end] conditions. There are many [blank_start]different[blank_end] yeasts on grape surfaces, making the process difficult to control. Wine industries often [blank_start]kill[blank_end] wild yeasts and add cultures of [blank_start]S cerevisiae[blank_end]. Low pH ([blank_start]3[blank_end]) combined with high alcohol content makes wines resistant to spoilage. A secondary fermentation is carried out by members of the [blank_start]lactic acid bacteria[blank_end]. [blank_start]Lactobacillus ones[blank_end] reduces acidity by converting magic acid to lactic acid and CO2. This is [blank_start]malolactic[blank_end] fermentation.
  • yeast
  • anaerobic
  • different
  • kill
  • S cerevisiae
  • 3
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • Lactobacillus oenos
  • malolactic

Question 4

  • Malate permease antiporter
  • Couples malate uptake w lact acid remove
  • Malate decarboxylated, makes lactate
  • Lactic acid excreted

Question 5

FOOD ADDITIVES Vitamins- vit [blank_start]B12[blank_end] only synthesised by microorgs. [blank_start]Propionobacterium[blank_end] is used. Enzymes- Proteases and [blank_start]amylases[blank_end]. (starch digesting) [blank_start]Citric[blank_end] acid- various bacteria used. [blank_start]ANTIBIOTICS[blank_end] Chemical comps secreted by soil bacteria and moulds to [blank_start]kill[blank_end] other microorgs in the [blank_start]same[blank_end] environment. Chemical warfare weapons used by bacteria and fungi. Discovery--> Penicillin from [blank_start]Penicillium[blank_end] fungus. This targets [blank_start]murein[blank_end] synthesis. [blank_start]Streptomycin[blank_end] from soil bacterium called [blank_start]Streptomyces[blank_end]. Targets protein synthesis. Antibiotics are [blank_start]secondary[blank_end] metabolites mostly produced by eukaryotic fungi or prokaryotic actinomycetes. They are secreted only when the culture enters [blank_start]stationary[blank_end] phase.
  • Propionobacterium
  • B12
  • amylases
  • Citric
  • kill
  • same
  • Penicillium
  • murein
  • Streptomycin
  • Streptomyces
  • secondary
  • stationary

Question 6

Common things targeted by antibiotics are: [blank_start]trans[blank_end]cription, [blank_start]murein[blank_end] synthesis, protein synthesis, trans[blank_start]lation[blank_end], cell [blank_start]membrane[blank_end]. Natural antibiotics can be [blank_start]chemically[blank_end] modified to give slightly different effects. Penicillin and [blank_start]cephalosporins[blank_end] bind to transpeptidase [blank_start]FtsI[blank_end] in murein synthesis.
  • trans
  • murein
  • lation
  • membrane
  • chemically
  • cephalosporins
  • FtsI

Question 7

We must add cDNA downstream of a promoter so it's highly expressed in E coli
  • E coli

Question 8

[blank_start]Interferon[blank_end]--->E.coli, antiviral, anti [blank_start]tumour[blank_end] Insulin--->E.coli, diabetes therapy Human [blank_start]insulin[blank_end] factor--->E.coli, childhood deficiency of [blank_start]growth[blank_end] hormone Human [blank_start]Dnase[blank_end] 1---> E.coli, cystic fibrosis therapy [blank_start]Cleaves[blank_end] DNA, and as there are molecules of DNA in CF mucus, DNase1 cuts this and relieves effects. [blank_start]Bioremediation[blank_end] Any process using microorganisms to remove [blank_start]toxic[blank_end] dangerous compounds from contaminated soil and [blank_start]groundwater[blank_end]. Cleanup of spills, degradation of pesticides and xenobiotics. Bacillus [blank_start]thuringiensis[blank_end] (makes spores) Has a [blank_start]bipyramidal[blank_end] crystal made of [blank_start]insecticidal[blank_end] protein. Once bacteria has been eaten by insect, it enters gut. It is a [blank_start]protoxin[blank_end] and when it is in the gut it gets cleaved and transformed. The toxin binds to [blank_start]epithelial[blank_end] cells on the gut surface. It then [blank_start]oligomerises[blank_end] (molecules join together) on the surface, forming a membrane channel. H2O and ions move in, causing lysis. Leads to death. [blank_start]Plants[blank_end] have been engineered to make this.
  • Interferon
  • tumour
  • insulin
  • growth
  • Dnase
  • Cleaves
  • Bioremediation
  • groundwater
  • toxic
  • bipyramidal
  • thuringiensis
  • insecticidal
  • protoxin
  • epithelial
  • oligomerises
  • Plants
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