The __________ of the project team is a crucial but unstated element of ancillary trade-offs
that the project manager must consider
Identify the example that would not usually be considered a project
developing a computer software application program
building a house
hosting a wedding reception
assembly line manufacturing of automobiles
Projects often interact with other projects being carried out simultaneously within the
organization and these interactions take the form of competition for scarce resources
between projects. This is an example of project __________.
A conventional project life cycle is a(n) __________ curve
Having only partial or no information about the situation or outcomes is called __________.
According to the PMBOK Guidebook, a __________ is a temporary endeavor
undertaken to create a unique product or service.
Conflicting expectations among stakeholders related to performance, cost, and time will
require the project manager to make appropriate ____________ in order to balance
competing demands related to these objectives
According to the authors, the prime objectives of project management are
customer satisfaction, budget, schedule
scope, cost, time
cost, quality, customer satisfaction
quality, scope, schedule
When done properly, project management begins with __________.
the initial concept for the project
The “stretched-S” pattern observed during the project lifecycle, for the most part, is a
result of the _________.
changing attitudes of the people who work in the project
difficulty in performing the individual activities of a project
changing levels of resources used during successive stages of the project lifecycle
principle that work expands to fill the allotted time
The attributes that characterize a project are __________.
purpose, repetition, interdependencies, consistency, uncertainty, conflict, and
resources, uniqueness, conflict, interdependencies, one-time occurrence, and
purpose, lifecycle, conflict, certainty, independence, performance, and finite
lifecycle, schedule, cost, uncertainty, independence, uniqueness, and purpose
The largest amount of effort applied to a project is during its __________
planning, scheduling, monitoring, and control
evaluation and termination
The project to construct a highway is unique because __________.
the characteristics of terrain will be different for different segments
different types of laborers will be used to build various segments of the highway
different people manage different sections of the highway
consistency of the concrete will vary for different segments
The military uses the term __________ to refer to an exceptionally large, long-range
objective that is broken down into a set of projects
Which of the following is not one of the four dimensions of project success
opening new opportunities for the future
business impact on the organization
number of people working on the project
impact on the customer
As sub-elements of a task, these __________ need to be accomplished to achieve the
objectives of the task.
levels of effort
Individuals or groups with a special interest in a project are called __________.
The desired outcomes or results of a project are called ____________.
Numeric project selection models generally focus on
Keeping the workforce numbers stable
Profits and profitability
Maintaining stock price & ROI
Management salary stability
If the NPV for a project is > 0, it indicates that the project will __________.
succeed to generate cash inflows
report a profit gain
be over the hurdle rate
report a profit loss
Risk is generally believed to focus on profits, but
About 50 percent of projects fail financially
Uncertainty plagues all aspects of the work and is present in all stages
Risk in projects is primarily focused on timely completion
Very few projects fail financially
Strategic benefits of PPM are
growing as the PMBOK is applied
difficult to quantify
clear to a majority of PMs.
An “Unweighted 0-1 Factor Model” has the advantage of:
Reducing problems with industry partners
Increased understanding & agreement within the organization
Greater organizational flexibility
Successful Project Management (PM) includes which of the following attributes
Focuses on high risk goals and endeavors
Strongly relates to the organization’s strategy, mission & goals.
Includes a complex set of methods involving multiple stakeholders.
Addresses problems outside the organization’s current mission.
The Weighted Factor Scoring Model has the advantage of:
Ease of calculation
Greater worldwide acceptance
Increased attention to relative importance of each selection criterion
The __________ is a widely adopted model when making selection decisions
on all sorts of projects by putting them in groups.
Which of the following project selection models focuses strongly on the longterm
success of the firm?
Product Line Extension
Project proposals for outside clients should include all of the following, EXCEPT
a detailed profit and loss calculation of the proposing group
a section describing the past experience of the proposing group
a general description of the problem
a description of the ability of the proposer to supply the facilities, needed
during the project
For your project, the average net cash flow is $5,000 per year into the
foreseeable future and the initial project investment will be $100,000. Then the
payback period is [blank_start]20[blank_end]
The disadvantage of the __________ model is that the output is strictly a
relative and subjective measure.
The __________ can use discounted or not discounted cash flows when being
internal rate of return
Which of the following is NOT a type of nonnumeric model
the sacred cow
the product line extension
the operating necessity
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) involves participation by
the entire project management team
the organization President
only the Project Manager.
stockholders in publicly traded organizations
Which stages of the Project Management Life Cycle are most likely to experience conflict with Time, Cost & Scope
End of the Project
Beginning of the Project
Most of the conflicts between organizations and outsiders have to do with what?
Property rights and contractual obligations
Levels of authority and power
Today outsourcing is growing rapidly, but
Chartering is growing faster
The use of partnerships and charters is growing slowly
Partnerships are growing faster
Many foreign countries discourage it
To begin managing conflict what should happen first?
Relevant issues must be listed and described from the two conflicting points of view
Both parties should hire lawyers
a Contract must be written
Stakeholders should be identified
Which categories of conflicts are most common throughout the Project Life Cycle
Groups with different goals and expectations
Significant uncertainty about who has authority
Interpersonal conflicts between the stakeholders
Goals, expectations, authority, and interpersonal conflicts.
A recommended, effective method of conflict resolution is:
Insistence on 100 percent consensus to move forward
Avoidance, or ignoring problem areas
Doing what the Project Manager says to do
Negotiation involving all concerned parties, and collaborating
What is a common goal for partnering among organizations
Collaborations among family members in upper management
Making international friendships
Avoiding legal issues with interstate trade
Diversification of technical risk, avoidance of capital investment, reducing political risk, and pooling of complementary knowledge
If a resource conflict arises between two high-priority projects, precedence is typically given to the project with the __________.
fastest completion time
earliest due date
lowest cost to complete
biggest revenue stream
Conflicts are satisfied when
the boss says it’s over
the level of frustration is lowered to the point where no action is contemplated, by either party, against the other party
someone gives up
someone wins the argument
Common problems in the first stage, Project Formation, are due to
Confusion in general
Upper Management’s lack of attention
A major requirement for conflict resolution is what?
Upper management should agree on the terms of agreement
The conflict should be settled without irreparable harm to the project’s objectives
There must be no bad publicity
Customers should be satisfied with the outcome
The use of a cooperating or accommodating strategy where you do not assert your position, is appropriate when?
Everyone is tired of negotiating
It is too difficult to get consensus.
You are right but the other party needs to “win a few”.
You are wrong
A recommended stakeholder analysis tool is the
Linear Regression Analysis
Time Series Analysis
The ideal project manager should be __________.
a technical specialist competent in principles of robust design
a direct, technical supervisor knowledgeable in the technology of the process being used
a facilitator and specialist with technical credibility
both generalist/facilitator and have a high level of technical competence in the science of the project
During project build-up, the project should move from a general concept to __________.
implementation of plans
a project contract
a highly detailed set of plans
a project charter
Project success depends upon:
The use of partnerships and charters
Both the technical skills of the team and the political and negotiating
skills of the PM are critical
Technical skills of the project team members
Political and negotiating skill of the PM
Because the PM typically has no direct authority over project team members,
s/he should motivate good performance how?
Using cash awards of various types
Threatening to expose their faults, errors, and poor performance
Posting progress charts with goals and targets for each week
Recognition, achievement, challenging assignments, responsibility,
chance to learn new skills, & the work itself
This member of the project team is responsible for the efficient production of
the product of the process, including the manufacturing engineering, design
and production of tooling, production scheduling, and other production tasks.
support services manager
In the past decade a new type of organizational structure has become
increasingly popular, It is called the:
What is a major advantage of the Functional Organization for a Project?
It offers maximum flexibility in use of personnel
Experts can be taken from their functional departments and
permanently assigned to the project.
It can be used to hide secret projects
It is very popular in the production industry
In a “Projectized” organization:
Relevant issues must be described in the Project Charter
A Scope of Work Contract must be written
Each Project Manager has full line authority so there is one person in
All stakeholders must be identified
When a project requires input from several functional areas and uses a
sophisticated technology, the recommended organizational structure is:
Common methods to select project forms are:
Decided by Upper Management
Confusing in general
Taught in business schools
Identify the statement that is NOT a major advantage of placing a project within
a functional department of the parent organization.
The functional division tends to be focused on activities particular to its
function instead of the project.
The functional division serves as a base of technological continuity.
Expertise is easily shared across multiple projects
The flexible use of staff increases
Typically when PMs, in large functional organization, are asked how many
people report to them, the reply is what?
Ten to Fifteen
Twenty or more
Five to ten
Meeting schedule and cost goals without compromising performance is what
type of problem?
Confidential or top secret.
A technical problem.
A human resource management problem.
Both a technical management and human resource management
This member of the project team is in charge of product design and
development and is responsible for functional analysis, specifications,
drawings, cost estimates, quality/reliability, engineering changes, and
support services manager
Most firms eventually adopt which organizational form for running their
Where is the location of a project in the “functional structure” within a traditional
Spread throughout the organization
Where it functions best
Within one of the major divisions or departments of the organization
In the President’s office
The PMO is ….?
Person of Most Objectivity
Personal Management Operational style
Project Management Office
Common benefits of the Matrixed Organization include
Less political infighting
among PMs because project staff have at least
two or more bosses
Greater visibility to upper management & higher wages
Rapid response to client needs & less anxiety over next job after project
Higher salaries & better promotion potential
Composite Organizational designs exist when:
The primary product of the Project is producing Composites
Projects in one organization are composed of specific, fixed
Several organizations form a partnership project.
Both functional and projectized divisions coexist in one firm.
In a “Projectized” organization
There is legal protection for each project and project manager
The organization is run as one big project
Each project includes a full set of the functions (staff, resources, etc)
needed for its operation
Each Project is divided into many subprojects
A major advantage of using a __________ placement for a project is that
individual experts can be utilized by many different projects.
Viewing the whole at one time rather than each piece individually describes the
_____ on the Critical Path _______?
The majority of activities; are full of slackers.
The majority of activities; have some slack
No activities; have zero slack
All activities; have zero slack
Task F has duration of 10 days and an earliest start date of 20 days. Based on the given
data, determine the early finish duration for task F.
Of the choices below, which tool has the most significant influence on the management
What is the impact of increasing the time for completion of a project?
Increasing customer satisfaction
A(n) __________ is a specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use
up resources, and take time to complete.
The most popular method for displaying a project schedule is the _______ due to ease
of use and ease of construction:
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a Gantt chart?
It provides a good picture of the state of the project
Gantt charts are more effective for very large projects than ordinary projects.
It is relatively easy to maintain
It can be easily understood
What is more common in business project management today?
Activity on Node (AON)
Activity on Arc (AOA)
Activity on Path (AOP)
Activity on Arrow (AOA)
The difference between the late start and early start for an activity is called its
The _________ is the key input for establishing the monitoring and control systems for
What is Monte Carlo Simulation used for?
Managing the effects of Gamma
Evaluating the impact of various management decisions
It is normally not used in Project Management
In PERT networks, assuming a normal distribution about estimates of duration, the
“pessimistic” time would be where there is a _______.
1% chance the actual work time is less
1% chance the actual work time is greater.
50% chance the actual work time is greater.
0% chance the actual work time is less
A precedence relationship where the completion of a successor activity depends on the
completion of a predecessor activity is called a __________.
start to start dependency
finish to start dependency
start to finish dependency
finish to finish dependency
The series of connected activities or events between any two events in a network is
Ambiguities in projects
can be reduced by using probabilities
can and must be eliminated
can be managed to reduce their impact
Project Management, Parkinson’s Law states that
Idle hands are created by slack
The early bird gets the worm
ET = (a + 4m + b) / 6
Work expands to fill the time allotted
Which of the following is NOT a software tool commonly used to manage projects,
especially in relation to time and cost budgets?
The critical activities in real-world projects typically constitute less than __________% of
the total activities in the project.
A task or set of tasks that are required by the project are called
In a well-understood projects, such as highway construction, budgeting is:
Estimating by scaling the various cost elements based on historical data
Usually very precise and accurate
Routine and boring
Rarely accurate because each highway is different
The pattern of deviations in cost and usage used for exception reporting to management is
Learning curves are important for:
Estimating cost improvement as parts become “broken in”.
Visualization of curved mechanical parts
estimating performance improvement as workers become experienced.
Helping new PMs understand the required math.
The second (1997) Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner Rover project achieved a 94 percent cost
reduction over the earlier (1976) Mars-lander mission due to:
deflation of the US dollar
design-to-cost method replacing the earlier design-to-performance method
Inflation of the US dollar
If projects include repetitive tasks with significant human input, the __________ rate should be
factored into the cost estimate.
The use of Monte Carlo Simulation
Removes ambiguity in the project parameters
Only provides a description of project uncertainties, but does not remove risk
Saves time and money
Reduces project risk
Crystal Ball is a software program that
Allows simulation of precise forecasts, which are most valuable
Provides a distribution of potential outcomes with associated probabilities
Is useful because it can predict the future
as developed by gypsies and is not very useful for Project Management.
One key reason for the 1997 Mars Project cost savings was
A project cash reserve was held back for time-phased release
Cost overruns were taken out of engineers’ paychecks
The cost accountants acted as Project Managers
Managers were fired for cost overruns
The major responsibility of professional cost estimators is to:
Reduce the level of uncertainty in cost estimates.
Add 20 percent to all estimates to avoid cost overruns
Eliminate unnecessary steps in the original engineering designs
Keep upper management happy & stay employed
__________ budgeting allows income and expenditures to be aggregated across projects
Unknown-unknowns are not part of the baseline budget and are referred to as
The advantage of the______ process is that it is generally associated with participative
In order to develop a budget, the PM must forecast __________.
the cost of resources
when resources will be needed
the resources required
All of the above
__________ states that adding manpower to a late software project makes it later
The Rule of Thumb
Many lower-level managers often treat the entire budgeting process as if it were a __________, a
situation in which any individual’s gain is another individual’s loss. This can make competition
among junior managers quite intense.
Brooks’ Law result
The Project Budget is
Not a sufficient measure of a Project’s progress or value to the organization
The primary means of obtaining Upper Management approval of a project
Generally so inaccurate that it is of little value in decision-making.
A sufficient measure of a Project’s progress and value.
What is always certain in projects?
They will be difficult but fun.
They provide stepping stones to promotion to upper management.
The Project Manager (PM) will be respected by the line managers.
Things will not go precisely as planned.
Another important factor in the 1997 Mars Project cost savings was
Upper management was very strict on paying bills
The 1997 Mars Lander never left the ground. It only simulated landing.
70 percent of major procurements contracts were fixed-price rather than cost-plus.
Subcontractors were fired if they sent bills greater than original estimates
___________ costs are not associated with any specific produc
General and administrative
Unless the project manager is familiar with the firm’s __________ it will be very difficult to exercise
The process of managing risk in a project is
a dynamic process throughout the project life cycle
not part of the PMBOK
selected by the management team
done at the beginning of the project planning cycle.
Common problems in managing projects include which of the following?
Staying within budget, within time constraints & within scope
During project formation, the organizational structure selected will have a major impact
on the ways in which conflicts are handled. Lack of clarity about the relative
power/influence/authority of the PM and the functional managers is a major component
of all conflicts involving __________.
resource allocation, and scheduling
One of the challenges project managers face is to ensure that managers do not mix
outcomes with the specific tasks needed to produce them
outside interests’ requirements with organizational expectations
control limits with specifications
project milestones with their respective completion dates
Risk management’s primary focus is on what type of activities?
Keeping the organization’s problems from appearing in the local newspapers.
Complex coordination of planning, risk identification, risk analysis, response
planning, monitoring & control, and recording of incidents
Minimizing workforce injuries.
Protecting the firm’s money/profitability
Finding a solution to a conflict in which no party can be made better off without making
another party worse off by the same amount or more is called what?
a Pareto Optimal Solution
A major purpose of the project management office should be to serve as __________.
maintenance for the project management library
the central location for all clerical support
the critical disaster recovery support
a link between strategic management and project management
A formalized method for transforming the opinions of a group of individuals into
quantitative measures that can be aggregated for use in decision-making is referred to
as the __________.
This element of the project plan contains a brief description of the procedure to be
followed in monitoring, collecting, storing, and evaluating the history of the project
The process of coordinating the work and timing of the different groups working on
multidisciplinary teams is called __________.
The process of dealing with uncertainties in projects that may affect the project for better
or for worse has come to be known as __________.
The most difficult aspect of coordinating a complex project is…
Coordinating the various elements of the project to meet overall project goals.
Determining the needed skill sets of project workers
Political disputes between managers involved in the project
Determining appropriate costs and budget allocations for groups
Personality conflicts during project phase-out are often caused by __________.
the absence of deadlines
distribution of expenses charged to the project
pressure to complete the project and anxiety about leaving the project
the influx of newer technology
Firms usually have two or more projects and this collection of projects is referred to as
a stochastic model
A universal characteristic of all projects is that projects are:
short on time
If a system is being updated due to operating necessity, the project was selected
the system is worth saving at any cost
the dimension of cost is not relevant to execution of the project
the system is worth saving at the estimated cost of the project
the cost overruns can be hidden in someone else's budget
This project plan element lists all milestone events. It identifies the estimated time for
each task and is used to construct the master project schedule.
A characteristic of __________ projects is that the work on these projects can cross
time, space, organizational, and cultural boundaries
When dealing with conflict between parties, it is recommended that one __________ in order to avoid the conflict becoming interpersonal.
leisurely discuss the issue
avoid the situation
focus on interests
define the substantive problem
A common problem in conflict resolution for new product or facility development is:
Stakeholder analysis tools are not relevant
Stakeholders cannot be identified.
Conflict is intense
The employees have not all been hired
Contracts are legal documents that
Ensure problems will not arise in projects
Prevent companies from going to court to solve their problems
May provide legal protection after problems arise
Ensure legal protection if problems arise
Finding a solution to a conflict in which no party can be made better off without making another party worse off by the same amount or more is
A Pareto Optimal Solution
Projects are conducted in four important environments. They are __________.
economic, political, legal, and sociotechnical
routine, unique, fast-paced, and complex
profit, not for profit, government, and industry
internal, external, transitional, and multicultural
Effective, longtime Project Managers expect which of the following regarding their
Project Teams (PTs)?
Initial PT conflict, then cohesiveness & teamwork, finally disbanding when project
Consistent good attitudes and hard work toward project goals, with successful
Teamwork, following orders from PM, working overtime to complete tasks per
schedule, strong support from Functional Managers.
From the start the PT will be in harmony and work together to finish on time
When managing a project, the project manager is responsible for __________.
auditing the project
budgeting the project
designing the project
executing the project
As compared to the functional manager, the project manager should more often use
what approach to solving problems?
A departmental approach
An analytical approach
A systems approach
His or her positional power
Acquiring and focusing personnel for work on the Project Team (PT) is generally difficult
the high visibility of the Project
team members’ dual responsibility to the Project and their Functional
lack of top management commitment to the Project
Resources initially budgeted for a project are frequently __________ for the task, partly
because of natural optimism by the proposer about how many resources are needed.
Successful Project Managers (PMs) must have which of the following skills?
Staying within budget, within time constraints, & within scope
Good negotiation skills
The project manager needs ________ credibility
Technical and personal
Technical and administrative
Technical and financial
Administrative and personal
The Project Manager’s job includes which of the following
Learning about foreign people and their national customs
Reducing conflict and stress between different types of Project Team members by
promoting understanding and appreciation
Keeping employees from different cultures and backgrounds off important project
teams to reduce friction and internal team conflict
Taking team members to cultural events to increase appreciation of each other
Attributes of successful project managers generally include which of the following?
Good technical skills, tough manager, good terms with senior management, broad
background including mostly success & few failures, works well under
pressure/stress, positive attitude & consensus builder.
Flexible, friendly, good with schedules, friends at top of organization
Strong management background, friends in upper management, little technical
skills, good negotiator
Prior successes, no failures, honesty, pride in their work, connections at top levels
Which of the following choices represent the best mix of skills and attributes for Project
Team Members (PTMs)?
High technical skills, willingness to take orders from PM, self-control
Problem-solving ability, technical skills, modest opinion of self
Ability to take orders, good work habits, individual contributor
High technical skills, problem-solving ability, political sensitivity, goal orientation,
The project manager must make trade-offs between project progress and process.
Conceptually, this involves trade-offs between the __________ functions.
technical and managerial
performance and schedule
schedule and cost
cost and performance
Which of the following is the most important for success of the project
Sufficient financial resources
A competent team
Good working environment
The Project Manager has support of Top Management
How can effective, lasting business relationships be built across different cultures?
When disagreements occur, meeting together in an atmosphere of trust and
negotiation to resolve problems
lawsuits when people do not perform as expected
Selecting business partners only if they have proof of existing strong national ties.
Threatening to cancel contracts if multinationals will not agree to terms.
Identify the attribute that is NOT normally associated with the job of functional manager.
The functional manager is responsible for deciding what resources will be
devoted to accomplishing the task
The functional manager is responsible for deciding who will do the work.
The functional manager is usually a generalist in the area being managed.
Refer to the section: Project Management and the Project Manager.
The functional manager is administratively responsible for deciding how
something will be done
During the buildup phase, the project goals, in order of importance, are __________.
schedule, cost, scope
cost, scope, schedule
cost, schedule, scope
schedule, scope, cost
Under normal business conditions, when the functional manager takes over control of
important details of the Project, this is …...?
ensuring good results
micromanagement and usually not beneficial
guaranteeing the plans
beneficial for project success
If deterministic time estimates are used, and if project deadlines are firm, there is a high
likelihood that it will __________.
be completed as per schedule
be completed on time and within budget
be necessary to crash the last few activities of most projects
not be necessary to crash any activities in projects
The __________ approach to constrained resource scheduling problems is the only feasible
method of attacking large, nonlinear, complex problems that tend to occur in the real world of
If all three critical resources are fixed, the system is
Fixed for a long time
On the Critical Path
Guaranteed to succeed
In some situations, two activities are scheduled to be carried out in parallel and using the same
scarce resource. If the supply of the scarce resource is not sufficient to allow both activities to be
carried out simultaneously, then whichever of the two is given priority immediately lengthens the
other activity’s path but not its actual __________.
Economically speaking, crashing a project creates a technology change in the __________ for an
deliverable demand function
deliverable supply function
Goldratt’s Critical Chain (1997) addresses what common PM problems?
Too much slack
Constrained resource scheduling
Not enough top management support
Lack of training for project team
Work situations that disrupt a Project Manager’s Schedule typically occur:
When a project is crashed it
is completed in less time
has fewer activities
is damaged badly
Most heuristic solution methods start with the __________ and analyze resource usage period by
period, resource by resource.
Which of the following effects will be observed in a network if a date-constrained project is
scheduled from the ending date constraint using the “as late as possible” heuristic?
The network will not have any critical activities
Each activity will make use of all the slack available to it.
It would never be possible to override the “as late as possible” heuristic with a “must start
no later than” date constraint.
Many of the activities will be scheduled prior to the start date of the project.
The use of heuristics for project scheduling
Has built-in routines to optimize outcomes and seek the best solutions.
Employs rules of thumb that have been found to work well for similar situations
Is not recommended
Requires use of computers due to complexity of algorithms
Goldratt illustrates that overly optimistic Project Managers are:
generally rare and in great de
in high demand in industry
most likely to get large raises and promotions
very common and cause problems in scheduling
When a project is expedited it will often
Be more fun for the project managers
Create more problems
The ___________ priority rule is the best overall and generally results in minimum schedule
slippage, minimum resource idle time, and minimum in-process inventory
last in, first out
minimum slack first
maximum cost first
first in, first out
Resource Leveling aims to minimize variations in resource usage by:
Signing fixed-cost contracts
Shifting tasks within their slack allowances
Keep resources on the same experience levels
In CPM, __________ are specified.
exact levels of uncertainty associated with activities
two activity times and two costs
n expected time, a crash time, and the standard deviation time
Which of the following describes the amount of resources a schedule requires during specific
Usage of scarce resources
For Projects, time is always
a critical resource
the responsibility of trained Time Management Experts
subject to negotiation with upper management
The typical reasons for lack of necessary resources where and/or when needed are
Supplier failure to deliver on time, or loss or theft of a required resources
Poor planning by upper management.
Incompetence or laziness of staff.
Management failure to act in a timely manner
If the resources for a project are increased, the outputs usually:
Decrease in predictable ways
Increase in predictable ways
Change, but not in predictable patterns
Monitoring, as an activity, should be kept distinct from __________, which uses
data supplied by monitoring to bring actual performance into approximate
congruence with planned performance
Effective reporting systems focus on
Providing the appropriate level of detail in reports to satisfy different
levels of managers
Following the original scope of the Project Plan.
Providing complete sets of available data.
Managing tradeoffs & eliminating risks
In earned value analysis, the 5050
rule assumes that __________.
50 percent is earned when the task begins and 50 percent is earned at
50 percent is earned when the task begins and 50 percent is earned at
the halfway stage
50 percent is earned when the project is planned and 50 percent is
earned when the project is over
50 percent is earned when the task is half done and 50 percent is
earned at completion
For each factor to be measured during monitoring; performance criteria,
standards, and __________ should be established
data collection procedures
Successful Project Monitoring Systems (PMS) plan, monitor, and facilitate
Time vs Schedule, Cost vs Budget, and Performance vs Planned Scope.
Budgets vs Expenses
Project Activities on PERTCPM
Delivery of products
The first step in setting up a monitoring system is to __________.
identify the key factors to be controlled
collect every available piece of information so it can be analyzed
use whatever information is available
collect existing data to see what data is relevant and available
According to the authors, in the planning monitoring
directions of the flows indicate that __________.
information flows from the top to the bottom
information flows from the bottom to the top and authority flows from the
top to the bottom
authority flows from the bottom to the top
information flows from the top to bottom and authority flows from the
bottom to the top
Today, Project Managers generally use _______ to build schedules and track
progress for large, complex projects.
Large, sophisticated computer programs.
electronic devices, such as cellphones.
__________ is when individuals are overwhelmed with too many reports, too
much detail, and too much data.
Measuring characteristics such as “quality of team member cooperation” and
“morale of team members” generally takes the form of
all of the above
Which of the following is NOT a common difficulty in the design of project
Providing too much detail
Having too many interface modules
Poor correspondence between the planning and monitoring systems
Poor correspondence to the parent firm’s reporting system
In earned value analysis, if the cost variance is ($
the cost variance is favorable
the scheduled variance is favorable
the scheduled cost avoidance is unfavorable
the cost variance is unfavorable
Variances are generally calculated so that
Variances of zero are always the favorable
Positive variances are favorable
Variances of zero indicate project is totally out of control
Negative variances are good
Reports for __________ have a need for detailed information about individual
tasks and the factors affecting such tasks.
all the stakeholders
A good project monitoring system will require _________ as compared to
commonly used informal method:
planning time & investment
Outside consultants to manage them.
More time & money, but reduce risk to zero.
The most common mistake made when monitoring data is to gather
information that is clearly related to project performance but __________.
is so volatile that trends cannot be detected
cannot be captured in the mechanized PMIS
has little or no probability of changing significantly between collection
is too unusual to use
A large proportion of all data collected takes one of the following forms
An appropriate and common secondary use for monitoring and reports
fixing the blame when things go wrong
grading the current status of the project
exercising total control over the project
auditing, learning from mistakes, and reporting progress and status
The project plan must be designed in such a way that the project outcome meets
unauthorized requests for change in the project outcome
the objectives of the parent organization
only the expressed warranties identified in the contract
the requirements associated with scope creep
The Project Launch Meeting occurs when?
Prior to beginning the project to show management commitment
When the Project is completed and ready to send to the client.
When the client has accepted the Project and is ready to finalize payment
When the project is fully designed and ready to begin implementation.
Managing complex projects often involves use of multidisciplinary teams (MTs)
including personnel from
various combinations of college majors, work units, subcontractors, and
different organizations including subcontractors.
different work units within the organization
different college majors.
The __________ is a specialized view of the action plan that focuses on who has what
responsibility for each project task
project team directory
linear responsibility chart
scope management plan
Agile project planning and management methods should be used when?
Project managers are well-qualified for many types of projects
Project team members are cross-trained and therefore are agile.
The project scope and costs are undefined.
Projects have a high degree of uncertainty
Risk management’s primary focus is on what type of activities?
Minimizing workforce injuries
Protecting the firm’s money/profitability
Keeping the organization’s problems from appearing in the local newspapers
Complex coordination of planning, risk identification, risk analysis, response
planning, monitoring & control, and recording of incidents.
According to the authors, any project must contain all of the following EXCEPT
a ‘ballpark’ estimate
This project plan element describes both the managerial and the technical approaches
to the work as a whole.
Risk management today is
involves only simple steps to minimize uncertainty
relatively uncommon in project management
reported to be practiced by over 71% of organizations.
practiced only by a few very large corporations
Agile IT project teams are typically __________ and located at __________.
small, a single site
large, a single site
small, multiple sites
large, multiple sites
This project plan element should include profit and competitive goals as well as
The success of the project launch meeting is dependent on the existence of
project planning templates
the project's scope statement
a well-defined set of objectives for the project
Presence of the client
In a WBS each hierarchical level should have about how many interrelated tasks?
2 to 20
10 to 20
5 to 10
About 3 to 5
Project success is judged by what criteria?
On-time & on budget
On budget & to scope
On time, within budget, to scope, and project impact on the organization.
To scope & impact on the organization
What is the RACI Matrix?
Recently Added Control Incident reporting matrix.
Matrix of Responsible and Certified Individuals
Resource Allocation & Cost Inventory matrix
Responsible, Accountable, Consult & Inform matrix
The __________is a list of the project activities with major activities broken down into