project

schiggy98
Quiz by schiggy98, updated more than 1 year ago
schiggy98
Created by schiggy98 about 5 years ago
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Description

Quiz on project, created by schiggy98 on 01/20/2016.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The __________ of the project team is a crucial but unstated element of ancillary trade-offs that the project manager must consider
Answer
  • health
  • plan
  • task
  • effort

Question 2

Question
Identify the example that would not usually be considered a project
Answer
  • developing a computer software application program
  • building a house
  • hosting a wedding reception
  • assembly line manufacturing of automobiles

Question 3

Question
Projects often interact with other projects being carried out simultaneously within the organization and these interactions take the form of competition for scarce resources between projects. This is an example of project __________.
Answer
  • breakdown
  • malfunctioning
  • interdependencies
  • bottleneck

Question 4

Question
A conventional project life cycle is a(n) __________ curve
Answer
  • low
  • steep
  • s-shaped curve
  • bell-shaped

Question 5

Question
Having only partial or no information about the situation or outcomes is called __________.
Answer
  • effort
  • uncertainty
  • risk
  • cluelessness

Question 6

Question
According to the PMBOK Guidebook, a __________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.
Answer
  • program
  • sub-process
  • Project
  • task

Question 7

Question
Conflicting expectations among stakeholders related to performance, cost, and time will require the project manager to make appropriate ____________ in order to balance competing demands related to these objectives
Answer
  • guidelines
  • weights
  • tasks
  • trade-offs

Question 8

Question
According to the authors, the prime objectives of project management are
Answer
  • customer satisfaction, budget, schedule
  • scope, cost, time
  • cost, quality, customer satisfaction
  • quality, scope, schedule

Question 9

Question
When done properly, project management begins with __________.
Answer
  • stakeholder interviews
  • scope definition
  • budget estimation
  • the initial concept for the project

Question 10

Question
The “stretched-S” pattern observed during the project lifecycle, for the most part, is a result of the _________.
Answer
  • changing attitudes of the people who work in the project
  • difficulty in performing the individual activities of a project
  • changing levels of resources used during successive stages of the project lifecycle
  • principle that work expands to fill the allotted time

Question 11

Question
The attributes that characterize a project are __________.
Answer
  • purpose, repetition, interdependencies, consistency, uncertainty, conflict, and one-time occurrence
  • resources, uniqueness, conflict, interdependencies, one-time occurrence, and finite duration
  • purpose, lifecycle, conflict, certainty, independence, performance, and finite duration
  • lifecycle, schedule, cost, uncertainty, independence, uniqueness, and purpose

Question 12

Question
The largest amount of effort applied to a project is during its __________
Answer
  • conception
  • planning, scheduling, monitoring, and control
  • selection
  • evaluation and termination

Question 13

Question
The project to construct a highway is unique because __________.
Answer
  • the characteristics of terrain will be different for different segments
  • different types of laborers will be used to build various segments of the highway
  • different people manage different sections of the highway
  • consistency of the concrete will vary for different segments

Question 14

Question
The military uses the term __________ to refer to an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects
Answer
  • task
  • program
  • campaign
  • subproject

Question 15

Question
Which of the following is not one of the four dimensions of project success
Answer
  • opening new opportunities for the future
  • business impact on the organization
  • number of people working on the project
  • impact on the customer

Question 16

Question
As sub-elements of a task, these __________ need to be accomplished to achieve the objectives of the task.
Answer
  • work packages
  • programs
  • subprojects
  • levels of effort

Question 17

Question
Individuals or groups with a special interest in a project are called __________.
Answer
  • project managers
  • leaders
  • directors
  • stakeholder

Question 18

Question
The desired outcomes or results of a project are called ____________.
Answer
  • deliverables
  • work packages
  • subgroups
  • subprojects

Question 19

Question
Numeric project selection models generally focus on
Answer
  • Keeping the workforce numbers stable
  • Profits and profitability
  • Maintaining stock price & ROI
  • Management salary stability

Question 20

Question
If the NPV for a project is > 0, it indicates that the project will __________.
Answer
  • succeed to generate cash inflows
  • report a profit gain
  • be over the hurdle rate
  • report a profit loss

Question 21

Question
Risk is generally believed to focus on profits, but
Answer
  • About 50 percent of projects fail financially
  • Uncertainty plagues all aspects of the work and is present in all stages of PM
  • Risk in projects is primarily focused on timely completion
  • Very few projects fail financially

Question 22

Question
Strategic benefits of PPM are
Answer
  • growing as the PMBOK is applied
  • very few.
  • difficult to quantify
  • clear to a majority of PMs.

Question 23

Question
An “Unweighted 0-1 Factor Model” has the advantage of:
Answer
  • Simplicity.
  • Reducing problems with industry partners
  • Increased understanding & agreement within the organization
  • Greater organizational flexibility

Question 24

Question
Successful Project Management (PM) includes which of the following attributes
Answer
  • Focuses on high risk goals and endeavors
  • Strongly relates to the organization’s strategy, mission & goals.
  • Includes a complex set of methods involving multiple stakeholders.
  • Addresses problems outside the organization’s current mission.

Question 25

Question
The Weighted Factor Scoring Model has the advantage of:
Answer
  • Ease of calculation
  • Greater worldwide acceptance
  • Simplicity.
  • Increased attention to relative importance of each selection criterion

Question 26

Question
The __________ is a widely adopted model when making selection decisions on all sorts of projects by putting them in groups.
Answer
  • Comparative Benefits
  • Comparative Sustainability
  • Comparative Necessity
  • Comparative Value

Question 27

Question
Which of the following project selection models focuses strongly on the longterm success of the firm?
Answer
  • Profitability Index.
  • Sustainability Model
  • Competitive Necessity
  • Product Line Extension

Question 28

Question
Project proposals for outside clients should include all of the following, EXCEPT __________
Answer
  • a detailed profit and loss calculation of the proposing group
  • a section describing the past experience of the proposing group
  • a general description of the problem
  • a description of the ability of the proposer to supply the facilities, needed during the project

Question 29

Question
For your project, the average net cash flow is $5,000 per year into the foreseeable future and the initial project investment will be $100,000. Then the payback period is [blank_start]20[blank_end]
Answer
  • 20

Question 30

Question
The disadvantage of the __________ model is that the output is strictly a relative and subjective measure.
Answer
  • sacred cow
  • payback period
  • scoring
  • window-of opportunity-analysis

Question 31

Question
The __________ can use discounted or not discounted cash flows when being calculated.
Answer
  • profitability index
  • Q-sort method
  • internal rate of return
  • payback period

Question 32

Question
Which of the following is NOT a type of nonnumeric model
Answer
  • the sacred cow
  • the product line extension
  • the operating necessity
  • payback period

Question 33

Question
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) involves participation by
Answer
  • the entire project management team
  • the organization President
  • only the Project Manager.
  • stockholders in publicly traded organizations

Question 34

Question
Which stages of the Project Management Life Cycle are most likely to experience conflict with Time, Cost & Scope
Answer
  • End of the Project
  • Beginning of the Project
  • All stages
  • Middle stages

Question 35

Question
Most of the conflicts between organizations and outsiders have to do with what?
Answer
  • Pricing disputes
  • Customer relationships
  • Property rights and contractual obligations
  • Levels of authority and power

Question 36

Question
Today outsourcing is growing rapidly, but
Answer
  • Chartering is growing faster
  • The use of partnerships and charters is growing slowly
  • Partnerships are growing faster
  • Many foreign countries discourage it

Question 37

Question
To begin managing conflict what should happen first?
Answer
  • Relevant issues must be listed and described from the two conflicting points of view
  • Both parties should hire lawyers
  • a Contract must be written
  • Stakeholders should be identified

Question 38

Question
Which categories of conflicts are most common throughout the Project Life Cycle
Answer
  • Groups with different goals and expectations
  • Significant uncertainty about who has authority
  • Interpersonal conflicts between the stakeholders
  • Goals, expectations, authority, and interpersonal conflicts.

Question 39

Question
A recommended, effective method of conflict resolution is:
Answer
  • Insistence on 100 percent consensus to move forward
  • Avoidance, or ignoring problem areas
  • Doing what the Project Manager says to do
  • Negotiation involving all concerned parties, and collaborating

Question 40

Question
What is a common goal for partnering among organizations
Answer
  • Collaborations among family members in upper management
  • Making international friendships
  • Avoiding legal issues with interstate trade
  • Diversification of technical risk, avoidance of capital investment, reducing political risk, and pooling of complementary knowledge

Question 41

Question
If a resource conflict arises between two high-priority projects, precedence is typically given to the project with the __________.
Answer
  • fastest completion time
  • earliest due date
  • lowest cost to complete
  • biggest revenue stream

Question 42

Question
Conflicts are satisfied when
Answer
  • the boss says it’s over
  • the level of frustration is lowered to the point where no action is contemplated, by either party, against the other party
  • someone gives up
  • someone wins the argument

Question 43

Question
Common problems in the first stage, Project Formation, are due to
Answer
  • Confusion in general
  • Budgets
  • Organizational structure
  • Upper Management’s lack of attention

Question 44

Question
A major requirement for conflict resolution is what?
Answer
  • Upper management should agree on the terms of agreement
  • The conflict should be settled without irreparable harm to the project’s objectives
  • There must be no bad publicity
  • Customers should be satisfied with the outcome

Question 45

Question
The use of a cooperating or accommodating strategy where you do not assert your position, is appropriate when?
Answer
  • Everyone is tired of negotiating
  • It is too difficult to get consensus.
  • You are right but the other party needs to “win a few”.
  • You are wrong

Question 46

Question
A recommended stakeholder analysis tool is the
Answer
  • Linear Regression Analysis
  • Time Series Analysis
  • Pareto Chart
  • Power-Interest Grid

Question 47

Question
The ideal project manager should be __________.
Answer
  • a technical specialist competent in principles of robust design
  • a direct, technical supervisor knowledgeable in the technology of the process being used
  • a facilitator and specialist with technical credibility
  • both generalist/facilitator and have a high level of technical competence in the science of the project

Question 48

Question
During project build-up, the project should move from a general concept to __________.
Answer
  • implementation of plans
  • a project contract
  • a highly detailed set of plans
  • a project charter

Question 49

Question
Project success depends upon:
Answer
  • The use of partnerships and charters
  • Both the technical skills of the team and the political and negotiating skills of the PM are critical
  • Technical skills of the project team members
  • Political and negotiating skill of the PM

Question 50

Question
Because the PM typically has no direct authority over project team members, s/he should motivate good performance how?
Answer
  • Using cash awards of various types
  • Threatening to expose their faults, errors, and poor performance
  • Posting progress charts with goals and targets for each week
  • Recognition, achievement, challenging assignments, responsibility, chance to learn new skills, & the work itself

Question 51

Question
This member of the project team is responsible for the efficient production of the product of the process, including the manufacturing engineering, design and production of tooling, production scheduling, and other production tasks.
Answer
  • support services manager
  • development engineer
  • project engineer
  • contract administrator

Question 52

Question
In the past decade a new type of organizational structure has become increasingly popular, It is called the:
Answer
  • Innovative Organization
  • Enterprise.
  • Subsidiary Organization
  • Project Organization

Question 53

Question
What is a major advantage of the Functional Organization for a Project?
Answer
  • It offers maximum flexibility in use of personnel
  • Experts can be taken from their functional departments and permanently assigned to the project.
  • It can be used to hide secret projects
  • It is very popular in the production industry

Question 54

Question
In a “Projectized” organization:
Answer
  • Relevant issues must be described in the Project Charter
  • A Scope of Work Contract must be written
  • Each Project Manager has full line authority so there is one person in charge
  • All stakeholders must be identified

Question 55

Question
When a project requires input from several functional areas and uses a sophisticated technology, the recommended organizational structure is:
Answer
  • Functional.
  • Matrix.
  • Ad hoc
  • Consensus.

Question 56

Question
Common methods to select project forms are:
Answer
  • Generally intuitive
  • Decided by Upper Management
  • Confusing in general
  • Taught in business schools

Question 57

Question
Identify the statement that is NOT a major advantage of placing a project within a functional department of the parent organization.
Answer
  • The functional division tends to be focused on activities particular to its function instead of the project.
  • The functional division serves as a base of technological continuity.
  • Expertise is easily shared across multiple projects
  • The flexible use of staff increases

Question 58

Question
Typically when PMs, in large functional organization, are asked how many people report to them, the reply is what?
Answer
  • Ten to Fifteen
  • Twenty or more
  • Five to ten
  • None

Question 59

Question
Meeting schedule and cost goals without compromising performance is what type of problem?
Answer
  • Confidential or top secret.
  • A technical problem.
  • A human resource management problem. d.
  • Both a technical management and human resource management problem

Question 60

Question
This member of the project team is in charge of product design and development and is responsible for functional analysis, specifications, drawings, cost estimates, quality/reliability, engineering changes, and documentation.
Answer
  • project controller
  • manufacturing engineer
  • systems architect
  • support services manager

Question 61

Question
Most firms eventually adopt which organizational form for running their projects?
Answer
  • Projectized.
  • Functional.
  • Virtual.
  • Matrix.

Question 62

Question
Where is the location of a project in the “functional structure” within a traditional large organization?
Answer
  • Spread throughout the organization
  • Where it functions best
  • Within one of the major divisions or departments of the organization
  • In the President’s office

Question 63

Question
The PMO is ….?
Answer
  • Premeditated Organization.
  • Person of Most Objectivity
  • Personal Management Operational style
  • Project Management Office

Question 64

Question
Common benefits of the Matrixed Organization include
Answer
  • Less political infighting among PMs because project staff have at least two or more bosses
  • Greater visibility to upper management & higher wages
  • Rapid response to client needs & less anxiety over next job after project ends
  • Higher salaries & better promotion potential

Question 65

Question
Composite Organizational designs exist when:
Answer
  • The primary product of the Project is producing Composites
  • Projects in one organization are composed of specific, fixed departments
  • Several organizations form a partnership project.
  • Both functional and projectized divisions coexist in one firm.

Question 66

Question
In a “Projectized” organization
Answer
  • There is legal protection for each project and project manager
  • The organization is run as one big project
  • Each project includes a full set of the functions (staff, resources, etc) needed for its operation
  • Each Project is divided into many subprojects

Question 67

Question
A major advantage of using a __________ placement for a project is that individual experts can be utilized by many different projects.
Answer
  • projectized
  • functional
  • virtual
  • standard

Question 68

Question
Viewing the whole at one time rather than each piece individually describes the __________ approach.
Answer
  • system
  • encompassing
  • homogeneous
  • enveloping

Question 69

Question
_____ on the Critical Path _______?
Answer
  • The majority of activities; are full of slackers.
  • The majority of activities; have some slack
  • No activities; have zero slack
  • All activities; have zero slack

Question 70

Question
Task F has duration of 10 days and an earliest start date of 20 days. Based on the given data, determine the early finish duration for task F.
Answer
  • 30 days
  • 20 days
  • 10 days
  • 5 days

Question 71

Question
Of the choices below, which tool has the most significant influence on the management of projects?
Answer
  • PERT chart
  • Organization chart
  • GANTT chart
  • The Schedule

Question 72

Question
What is the impact of increasing the time for completion of a project?
Answer
  • Increasing cost
  • Increasing errors
  • Increasing customer satisfaction
  • Decreasing cost

Question 73

Question
A(n) __________ is a specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete.
Answer
  • path
  • milestone
  • node
  • activity

Question 74

Question
The most popular method for displaying a project schedule is the _______ due to ease of use and ease of construction:
Answer
  • PERT
  • CPM
  • Network Diagram
  • Gannt Chart

Question 75

Question
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a Gantt chart?
Answer
  • It provides a good picture of the state of the project
  • Gantt charts are more effective for very large projects than ordinary projects.
  • It is relatively easy to maintain
  • It can be easily understood

Question 76

Question
What is more common in business project management today?
Answer
  • Activity on Node (AON)
  • Activity on Arc (AOA)
  • Activity on Path (AOP)
  • Activity on Arrow (AOA)

Question 77

Question
The difference between the late start and early start for an activity is called its __________.
Answer
  • task
  • progress
  • float
  • critical path

Question 78

Question
The _________ is the key input for establishing the monitoring and control systems for the project
Answer
  • budget
  • Organization chart
  • PERT Chart
  • schedule

Question 79

Question
What is Monte Carlo Simulation used for?
Answer
  • Managing the effects of Gamma
  • Evaluating the impact of various management decisions
  • Calculating Alpha
  • It is normally not used in Project Management

Question 80

Question
In PERT networks, assuming a normal distribution about estimates of duration, the “pessimistic” time would be where there is a _______.
Answer
  • 1% chance the actual work time is less
  • 1% chance the actual work time is greater.
  • 50% chance the actual work time is greater.
  • 0% chance the actual work time is less

Question 81

Question
A precedence relationship where the completion of a successor activity depends on the completion of a predecessor activity is called a __________.
Answer
  • start to start dependency
  • finish to start dependency
  • start to finish dependency
  • finish to finish dependency

Question 82

Question
The series of connected activities or events between any two events in a network is called
Answer
  • Network
  • Path
  • Event
  • Stream

Question 83

Question
Ambiguities in projects
Answer
  • are overwhelming
  • can be reduced by using probabilities
  • can and must be eliminated
  • can be managed to reduce their impact

Question 84

Question
Project Management, Parkinson’s Law states that
Answer
  • Idle hands are created by slack
  • The early bird gets the worm
  • ET = (a + 4m + b) / 6
  • Work expands to fill the time allotted

Question 85

Question
Which of the following is NOT a software tool commonly used to manage projects, especially in relation to time and cost budgets?
Answer
  • Microsoft Project
  • Microsoft Word
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Crystal Ball

Question 86

Question
The critical activities in real-world projects typically constitute less than __________% of the total activities in the project.
Answer
  • 5
  • 50
  • 10
  • 30

Question 87

Question
A task or set of tasks that are required by the project are called
Answer
  • Activities
  • Networks
  • Events
  • Paths

Question 88

Question
In a well-understood projects, such as highway construction, budgeting is:
Answer
  • Estimating by scaling the various cost elements based on historical data
  • Usually very precise and accurate
  • Routine and boring
  • Rarely accurate because each highway is different

Question 89

Question
The pattern of deviations in cost and usage used for exception reporting to management is called __________.
Answer
  • variances
  • summaries
  • simulations
  • assumptions

Question 90

Question
Learning curves are important for:
Answer
  • Estimating cost improvement as parts become “broken in”.
  • Visualization of curved mechanical parts
  • estimating performance improvement as workers become experienced.
  • Helping new PMs understand the required math.

Question 91

Question
The second (1997) Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner Rover project achieved a 94 percent cost reduction over the earlier (1976) Mars-lander mission due to:
Answer
  • better-trained engineers
  • deflation of the US dollar
  • design-to-cost method replacing the earlier design-to-performance method
  • Inflation of the US dollar

Question 92

Question
If projects include repetitive tasks with significant human input, the __________ rate should be factored into the cost estimate.
Answer
  • hurdle
  • inflation
  • learning
  • interest

Question 93

Question
The use of Monte Carlo Simulation
Answer
  • Removes ambiguity in the project parameters
  • Only provides a description of project uncertainties, but does not remove risk
  • Saves time and money
  • Reduces project risk

Question 94

Question
Crystal Ball is a software program that
Answer
  • Allows simulation of precise forecasts, which are most valuable
  • Provides a distribution of potential outcomes with associated probabilities
  • Is useful because it can predict the future
  • as developed by gypsies and is not very useful for Project Management.

Question 95

Question
One key reason for the 1997 Mars Project cost savings was
Answer
  • A project cash reserve was held back for time-phased release
  • Cost overruns were taken out of engineers’ paychecks
  • The cost accountants acted as Project Managers
  • Managers were fired for cost overruns

Question 96

Question
The major responsibility of professional cost estimators is to:
Answer
  • Reduce the level of uncertainty in cost estimates.
  • Add 20 percent to all estimates to avoid cost overruns
  • Eliminate unnecessary steps in the original engineering designs
  • Keep upper management happy & stay employed

Question 97

Question
__________ budgeting allows income and expenditures to be aggregated across projects
Answer
  • Expense-oriented
  • Project-oriented
  • activity-oriented
  • Category-oriented

Question 98

Question
Unknown-unknowns are not part of the baseline budget and are referred to as
Answer
  • PMBOK reserves
  • Buffered reserves
  • management reserves
  • contingency reserves

Question 99

Question
The advantage of the______ process is that it is generally associated with participative management.
Answer
  • top-down
  • Efficient
  • Murphy’s
  • bottom-up

Question 100

Question
In order to develop a budget, the PM must forecast __________.
Answer
  • the cost of resources
  • when resources will be needed
  • the resources required
  • All of the above

Question 101

Question
__________ states that adding manpower to a late software project makes it later
Answer
  • The Rule of Thumb
  • Smith’s Law
  • Murphy’s Law
  • Brooks’ Law

Question 102

Question
Many lower-level managers often treat the entire budgeting process as if it were a __________, a situation in which any individual’s gain is another individual’s loss. This can make competition among junior managers quite intense.
Answer
  • Top-down approach
  • zero-sum game
  • Brooks’ Law result
  • pie-chart dilemma

Question 103

Question
The Project Budget is
Answer
  • Not a sufficient measure of a Project’s progress or value to the organization
  • The primary means of obtaining Upper Management approval of a project
  • Generally so inaccurate that it is of little value in decision-making.
  • A sufficient measure of a Project’s progress and value.

Question 104

Question
What is always certain in projects?
Answer
  • They will be difficult but fun.
  • They provide stepping stones to promotion to upper management.
  • The Project Manager (PM) will be respected by the line managers.
  • Things will not go precisely as planned.

Question 105

Question
Another important factor in the 1997 Mars Project cost savings was
Answer
  • Upper management was very strict on paying bills
  • The 1997 Mars Lander never left the ground. It only simulated landing.
  • 70 percent of major procurements contracts were fixed-price rather than cost-plus.
  • Subcontractors were fired if they sent bills greater than original estimates

Question 106

Question
___________ costs are not associated with any specific produc
Answer
  • Indirect
  • Overhead
  • General and administrative
  • Direct

Question 107

Question
Unless the project manager is familiar with the firm’s __________ it will be very difficult to exercise budget control.
Answer
  • cost accounting
  • marketing procedures
  • budget plans
  • accounting system

Question 108

Question
The process of managing risk in a project is
Answer
  • a dynamic process throughout the project life cycle
  • not part of the PMBOK
  • selected by the management team
  • done at the beginning of the project planning cycle.

Question 109

Question
Common problems in managing projects include which of the following?
Answer
  • Staying within budget, within time constraints & within scope
  • Making profits
  • Following specifications
  • Satisfying customers

Question 110

Question
During project formation, the organizational structure selected will have a major impact on the ways in which conflicts are handled. Lack of clarity about the relative power/influence/authority of the PM and the functional managers is a major component of all conflicts involving __________.
Answer
  • budgeting
  • property rights
  • resource allocation, and scheduling
  • contractual obligations

Question 111

Question
One of the challenges project managers face is to ensure that managers do not mix __________.
Answer
  • outcomes with the specific tasks needed to produce them
  • outside interests’ requirements with organizational expectations
  • control limits with specifications
  • project milestones with their respective completion dates

Question 112

Question
Risk management’s primary focus is on what type of activities?
Answer
  • Keeping the organization’s problems from appearing in the local newspapers.
  • Complex coordination of planning, risk identification, risk analysis, response planning, monitoring & control, and recording of incidents
  • Minimizing workforce injuries.
  • Protecting the firm’s money/profitability

Question 113

Question
Finding a solution to a conflict in which no party can be made better off without making another party worse off by the same amount or more is called what?
Answer
  • Lose-Lose Solution
  • Win-Lose Solution
  • Compromise
  • a Pareto Optimal Solution

Question 114

Question
A major purpose of the project management office should be to serve as __________.
Answer
  • maintenance for the project management library
  • the central location for all clerical support
  • the critical disaster recovery support
  • a link between strategic management and project management

Question 115

Question
A formalized method for transforming the opinions of a group of individuals into quantitative measures that can be aggregated for use in decision-making is referred to as the __________.
Answer
  • Delphi system
  • portfolio
  • simulation
  • expert system

Question 116

Question
This element of the project plan contains a brief description of the procedure to be followed in monitoring, collecting, storing, and evaluating the history of the project
Answer
  • evaluation methods
  • resources
  • personnel
  • schedule

Question 117

Question
The process of coordinating the work and timing of the different groups working on multidisciplinary teams is called __________.
Answer
  • vertical management
  • integration management
  • matrix management
  • procurement management

Question 118

Question
The process of dealing with uncertainties in projects that may affect the project for better or for worse has come to be known as __________.
Answer
  • risk management
  • scope management
  • quality management
  • procurement management

Question 119

Question
The most difficult aspect of coordinating a complex project is…
Answer
  • Coordinating the various elements of the project to meet overall project goals.
  • Determining the needed skill sets of project workers
  • Political disputes between managers involved in the project
  • Determining appropriate costs and budget allocations for groups

Question 120

Question
Personality conflicts during project phase-out are often caused by __________.
Answer
  • the absence of deadlines
  • distribution of expenses charged to the project
  • pressure to complete the project and anxiety about leaving the project
  • the influx of newer technology

Question 121

Question
Firms usually have two or more projects and this collection of projects is referred to as __________.
Answer
  • an initiation
  • a program
  • a portfolio
  • a stochastic model

Question 122

Question
A universal characteristic of all projects is that projects are:
Answer
  • unique
  • over budget
  • difficult
  • short on time

Question 123

Question
If a system is being updated due to operating necessity, the project was selected because __________.
Answer
  • the system is worth saving at any cost
  • the dimension of cost is not relevant to execution of the project
  • the system is worth saving at the estimated cost of the project
  • the cost overruns can be hidden in someone else's budget

Question 124

Question
This project plan element lists all milestone events. It identifies the estimated time for each task and is used to construct the master project schedule.
Answer
  • budget
  • schedule
  • personnel plan
  • evaluation methods

Question 125

Question
A characteristic of __________ projects is that the work on these projects can cross time, space, organizational, and cultural boundaries
Answer
  • matrix
  • virtual
  • standard
  • projectized

Question 126

Question
When dealing with conflict between parties, it is recommended that one __________ in order to avoid the conflict becoming interpersonal.
Answer
  • leisurely discuss the issue
  • avoid the situation
  • focus on interests
  • define the substantive problem

Question 127

Question
A common problem in conflict resolution for new product or facility development is:
Answer
  • Stakeholder analysis tools are not relevant
  • Stakeholders cannot be identified.
  • Conflict is intense
  • The employees have not all been hired

Question 128

Question
Contracts are legal documents that
Answer
  • Ensure problems will not arise in projects
  • Prevent companies from going to court to solve their problems
  • May provide legal protection after problems arise
  • Ensure legal protection if problems arise

Question 129

Question
Finding a solution to a conflict in which no party can be made better off without making another party worse off by the same amount or more is called what?
Answer
  • A Pareto Optimal Solution
  • Lose-Lose Solution
  • Win-Lose Solution
  • Compromise.

Question 130

Question
Projects are conducted in four important environments. They are __________.
Answer
  • economic, political, legal, and sociotechnical
  • routine, unique, fast-paced, and complex
  • profit, not for profit, government, and industry
  • internal, external, transitional, and multicultural

Question 131

Question
Effective, longtime Project Managers expect which of the following regarding their Project Teams (PTs)?
Answer
  • Initial PT conflict, then cohesiveness & teamwork, finally disbanding when project is complete.
  • Consistent good attitudes and hard work toward project goals, with successful on-time finish.
  • Teamwork, following orders from PM, working overtime to complete tasks per schedule, strong support from Functional Managers.
  • From the start the PT will be in harmony and work together to finish on time

Question 132

Question
When managing a project, the project manager is responsible for __________.
Answer
  • auditing the project
  • budgeting the project
  • designing the project
  • executing the project

Question 133

Question
As compared to the functional manager, the project manager should more often use what approach to solving problems?
Answer
  • A departmental approach
  • An analytical approach
  • A systems approach
  • His or her positional power

Question 134

Question
Acquiring and focusing personnel for work on the Project Team (PT) is generally difficult because of:
Answer
  • lazy workers
  • the high visibility of the Project
  • team members’ dual responsibility to the Project and their Functional Departments
  • lack of top management commitment to the Project

Question 135

Question
Resources initially budgeted for a project are frequently __________ for the task, partly because of natural optimism by the proposer about how many resources are needed.
Answer
  • delayed
  • sufficient
  • hindrances
  • insufficient

Question 136

Question
Successful Project Managers (PMs) must have which of the following skills?
Answer
  • Satisfying customers
  • Staying within budget, within time constraints, & within scope
  • Following specifications
  • Good negotiation skills

Question 137

Question
The project manager needs ________ credibility
Answer
  • Technical and personal
  • Technical and administrative
  • Technical and financial
  • Administrative and personal

Question 138

Question
The Project Manager’s job includes which of the following
Answer
  • Learning about foreign people and their national customs
  • Reducing conflict and stress between different types of Project Team members by promoting understanding and appreciation
  • Keeping employees from different cultures and backgrounds off important project teams to reduce friction and internal team conflict
  • Taking team members to cultural events to increase appreciation of each other

Question 139

Question
Attributes of successful project managers generally include which of the following?
Answer
  • Good technical skills, tough manager, good terms with senior management, broad background including mostly success & few failures, works well under pressure/stress, positive attitude & consensus builder.
  • Flexible, friendly, good with schedules, friends at top of organization
  • Strong management background, friends in upper management, little technical skills, good negotiator
  • Prior successes, no failures, honesty, pride in their work, connections at top levels of organization.

Question 140

Question
Which of the following choices represent the best mix of skills and attributes for Project Team Members (PTMs)?
Answer
  • High technical skills, willingness to take orders from PM, self-control
  • Problem-solving ability, technical skills, modest opinion of self
  • Ability to take orders, good work habits, individual contributor
  • High technical skills, problem-solving ability, political sensitivity, goal orientation, high self-esteem

Question 141

Question
The project manager must make trade-offs between project progress and process. Conceptually, this involves trade-offs between the __________ functions.
Answer
  • technical and managerial
  • performance and schedule
  • schedule and cost
  • cost and performance

Question 142

Question
Which of the following is the most important for success of the project
Answer
  • Sufficient financial resources
  • A competent team
  • Good working environment
  • The Project Manager has support of Top Management

Question 143

Question
How can effective, lasting business relationships be built across different cultures?
Answer
  • When disagreements occur, meeting together in an atmosphere of trust and negotiation to resolve problems
  • lawsuits when people do not perform as expected
  • Selecting business partners only if they have proof of existing strong national ties.
  • Threatening to cancel contracts if multinationals will not agree to terms.

Question 144

Question
Identify the attribute that is NOT normally associated with the job of functional manager.
Answer
  • The functional manager is responsible for deciding what resources will be devoted to accomplishing the task
  • The functional manager is responsible for deciding who will do the work.
  • The functional manager is usually a generalist in the area being managed. Refer to the section: Project Management and the Project Manager.
  • The functional manager is administratively responsible for deciding how something will be done

Question 145

Question
During the buildup phase, the project goals, in order of importance, are __________.
Answer
  • schedule, cost, scope
  • cost, scope, schedule
  • cost, schedule, scope
  • schedule, scope, cost

Question 146

Question
Under normal business conditions, when the functional manager takes over control of important details of the Project, this is …...?
Answer
  • ensuring good results
  • micromanagement and usually not beneficial
  • guaranteeing the plans
  • beneficial for project success

Question 147

Question
If deterministic time estimates are used, and if project deadlines are firm, there is a high likelihood that it will __________.
Answer
  • be completed as per schedule
  • be completed on time and within budget
  • be necessary to crash the last few activities of most projects
  • not be necessary to crash any activities in projects

Question 148

Question
The __________ approach to constrained resource scheduling problems is the only feasible method of attacking large, nonlinear, complex problems that tend to occur in the real world of project management.
Answer
  • linear programming
  • optimization modeling
  • goal programming
  • heuristic

Question 149

Question
If all three critical resources are fixed, the system is
Answer
  • Fixed for a long time
  • Over-determined
  • On the Critical Path
  • Guaranteed to succeed

Question 150

Question
In some situations, two activities are scheduled to be carried out in parallel and using the same scarce resource. If the supply of the scarce resource is not sufficient to allow both activities to be carried out simultaneously, then whichever of the two is given priority immediately lengthens the other activity’s path but not its actual __________.
Answer
  • buffer
  • slack
  • float
  • duration

Question 151

Question
Economically speaking, crashing a project creates a technology change in the __________ for an activity.
Answer
  • production function
  • deliverable demand function
  • deliverable supply function
  • audit function

Question 152

Question
Goldratt’s Critical Chain (1997) addresses what common PM problems?
Answer
  • Too much slack
  • Constrained resource scheduling
  • Not enough top management support
  • Lack of training for project team

Question 153

Question
Work situations that disrupt a Project Manager’s Schedule typically occur:
Answer
  • quarterly
  • rarely
  • annually
  • unexpectedly

Question 154

Question
When a project is crashed it
Answer
  • is completed in less time
  • has fewer activities
  • is damaged badly
  • costs less.

Question 155

Question
Most heuristic solution methods start with the __________ and analyze resource usage period by period, resource by resource.
Answer
  • Master schedule
  • PERT/CPM schedule
  • Gantt chart
  • GERT schedule

Question 156

Question
Which of the following effects will be observed in a network if a date-constrained project is scheduled from the ending date constraint using the “as late as possible” heuristic?
Answer
  • The network will not have any critical activities
  • Each activity will make use of all the slack available to it.
  • It would never be possible to override the “as late as possible” heuristic with a “must start no later than” date constraint.
  • Many of the activities will be scheduled prior to the start date of the project.

Question 157

Question
The use of heuristics for project scheduling
Answer
  • Has built-in routines to optimize outcomes and seek the best solutions.
  • Employs rules of thumb that have been found to work well for similar situations
  • Is not recommended
  • Requires use of computers due to complexity of algorithms

Question 158

Question
Goldratt illustrates that overly optimistic Project Managers are:
Answer
  • generally rare and in great de
  • in high demand in industry
  • most likely to get large raises and promotions
  • very common and cause problems in scheduling

Question 159

Question
When a project is expedited it will often
Answer
  • Save resources
  • Cost less
  • Be more fun for the project managers
  • Create more problems

Question 160

Question
The ___________ priority rule is the best overall and generally results in minimum schedule slippage, minimum resource idle time, and minimum in-process inventory
Answer
  • last in, first out
  • minimum slack first
  • maximum cost first
  • first in, first out

Question 161

Question
Resource Leveling aims to minimize variations in resource usage by:
Answer
  • Signing fixed-cost contracts
  • Shifting tasks within their slack allowances
  • Keep resources on the same experience levels
  • Eliminating slack

Question 162

Question
In CPM, __________ are specified.
Answer
  • three costs
  • exact levels of uncertainty associated with activities
  • two activity times and two costs
  • n expected time, a crash time, and the standard deviation time

Question 163

Question
Which of the following describes the amount of resources a schedule requires during specific time periods?
Answer
  • Time management
  • Resource leveling
  • Usage of scarce resources
  • Resource loading

Question 164

Question
For Projects, time is always
Answer
  • free.
  • a critical resource
  • the responsibility of trained Time Management Experts
  • subject to negotiation with upper management

Question 165

Question
The typical reasons for lack of necessary resources where and/or when needed are
Answer
  • Supplier failure to deliver on time, or loss or theft of a required resources
  • Poor planning by upper management.
  • Incompetence or laziness of staff.
  • Management failure to act in a timely manner

Question 166

Question
If the resources for a project are increased, the outputs usually:
Answer
  • Decrease in predictable ways
  • Remain constant
  • Increase in predictable ways
  • Change, but not in predictable patterns

Question 167

Question
Monitoring, as an activity, should be kept distinct from __________, which uses data supplied by monitoring to bring actual performance into approximate congruence with planned performance
Answer
  • reporting
  • recording
  • controlling
  • collecting

Question 168

Question
Effective reporting systems focus on
Answer
  • Providing the appropriate level of detail in reports to satisfy different levels of managers
  • Following the original scope of the Project Plan.
  • Providing complete sets of available data.
  • Managing tradeoffs & eliminating risks

Question 169

Question
In earned value analysis, the 5050 rule assumes that __________.
Answer
  • 50 percent is earned when the task begins and 50 percent is earned at completion
  • 50 percent is earned when the task begins and 50 percent is earned at the halfway stage
  • 50 percent is earned when the project is planned and 50 percent is earned when the project is over
  • 50 percent is earned when the task is half done and 50 percent is earned at completion

Question 170

Question
For each factor to be measured during monitoring; performance criteria, standards, and __________ should be established
Answer
  • mechanized systems
  • audit checks
  • data collection procedures
  • automated systems

Question 171

Question
Successful Project Monitoring Systems (PMS) plan, monitor, and facilitate control of:
Answer
  • Time vs Schedule, Cost vs Budget, and Performance vs Planned Scope.
  • Budgets vs Expenses
  • Project Activities on PERTCPM diagrams
  • Ontime Delivery of products

Question 172

Question
The first step in setting up a monitoring system is to __________.
Answer
  • identify the key factors to be controlled
  • collect every available piece of information so it can be analyzed
  • use whatever information is available
  • collect existing data to see what data is relevant and available

Question 173

Question
According to the authors, in the planning monitoring controlling cycle, the directions of the flows indicate that __________. Select one:
Answer
  • information flows from the top to the bottom
  • information flows from the bottom to the top and authority flows from the top to the bottom
  • authority flows from the bottom to the top
  • information flows from the top to bottom and authority flows from the bottom to the top

Question 174

Question
Today, Project Managers generally use _______ to build schedules and track progress for large, complex projects.
Answer
  • Mainframe computers
  • Sliderules.
  • Large, sophisticated computer programs.
  • Handheld electronic devices, such as cellphones.

Question 175

Question
__________ is when individuals are overwhelmed with too many reports, too much detail, and too much data.
Answer
  • Project isolation
  • Information overload
  • PMIS verification
  • Computer paralysis

Question 176

Question
Measuring characteristics such as “quality of team member cooperation” and “morale of team members” generally takes the form of __________characterizations
Answer
  • verbal
  • raw number
  • indicative
  • all of the above

Question 177

Question
Which of the following is NOT a common difficulty in the design of project reports?
Answer
  • Providing too much detail
  • Having too many interface modules
  • Poor correspondence between the planning and monitoring systems
  • Poor correspondence to the parent firm’s reporting system

Question 178

Question
In earned value analysis, if the cost variance is ($ 10,000), __________.
Answer
  • the cost variance is favorable
  • the scheduled variance is favorable
  • the scheduled cost avoidance is unfavorable
  • the cost variance is unfavorable

Question 179

Question
Variances are generally calculated so that
Answer
  • Variances of zero are always the favorable
  • Positive variances are favorable
  • Variances of zero indicate project is totally out of control
  • Negative variances are good

Question 180

Question
Reports for __________ have a need for detailed information about individual tasks and the factors affecting such tasks.
Answer
  • project managers
  • all the stakeholders
  • top executives
  • lowerlevel personnel

Question 181

Question
A good project monitoring system will require _________ as compared to commonly used informal method:
Answer
  • Greater upfront planning time & investment
  • Less cost
  • Outside consultants to manage them.
  • More time & money, but reduce risk to zero.

Question 182

Question
The most common mistake made when monitoring data is to gather information that is clearly related to project performance but __________.
Answer
  • is so volatile that trends cannot be detected
  • cannot be captured in the mechanized PMIS
  • has little or no probability of changing significantly between collection periods
  • is too unusual to use

Question 183

Question
A large proportion of all data collected takes one of the following forms EXCEPT __________.
Answer
  • indicators
  • verbal measures
  • raw numbers
  • individual perceptions

Question 184

Question
An appropriate and common secondary use for monitoring and reports includes
Answer
  • fixing the blame when things go wrong
  • grading the current status of the project
  • exercising total control over the project
  • auditing, learning from mistakes, and reporting progress and status

Question 185

Question
The project plan must be designed in such a way that the project outcome meets __________.
Answer
  • unauthorized requests for change in the project outcome
  • the objectives of the parent organization
  • only the expressed warranties identified in the contract
  • the requirements associated with scope creep

Question 186

Question
The Project Launch Meeting occurs when?
Answer
  • Prior to beginning the project to show management commitment
  • When the Project is completed and ready to send to the client.
  • When the client has accepted the Project and is ready to finalize payment
  • When the project is fully designed and ready to begin implementation.

Question 187

Question
Managing complex projects often involves use of multidisciplinary teams (MTs) including personnel from
Answer
  • various combinations of college majors, work units, subcontractors, and industry partners
  • different organizations including subcontractors.
  • different work units within the organization
  • different college majors.

Question 188

Question
The __________ is a specialized view of the action plan that focuses on who has what responsibility for each project task
Answer
  • resource histogram
  • project team directory
  • linear responsibility chart
  • scope management plan

Question 189

Question
Agile project planning and management methods should be used when?
Answer
  • Project managers are well-qualified for many types of projects
  • Project team members are cross-trained and therefore are agile.
  • The project scope and costs are undefined.
  • Projects have a high degree of uncertainty

Question 190

Question
Risk management’s primary focus is on what type of activities?
Answer
  • Minimizing workforce injuries
  • Protecting the firm’s money/profitability
  • Keeping the organization’s problems from appearing in the local newspapers
  • Complex coordination of planning, risk identification, risk analysis, response planning, monitoring & control, and recording of incidents.

Question 191

Question
According to the authors, any project must contain all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
  • evaluation methods
  • contractual aspects
  • resources
  • a ‘ballpark’ estimate

Question 192

Question
This project plan element describes both the managerial and the technical approaches to the work as a whole.
Answer
  • schedule
  • overview
  • objectives
  • contractual aspects

Question 193

Question
Risk management today is
Answer
  • involves only simple steps to minimize uncertainty
  • relatively uncommon in project management
  • reported to be practiced by over 71% of organizations.
  • practiced only by a few very large corporations

Question 194

Question
Agile IT project teams are typically __________ and located at __________.
Answer
  • small, a single site
  • large, a single site
  • small, multiple sites
  • large, multiple sites

Question 195

Question
This project plan element should include profit and competitive goals as well as technical goals.
Answer
  • overview
  • contractual aspects
  • objectives
  • general approach

Question 196

Question
The success of the project launch meeting is dependent on the existence of
Answer
  • project planning templates
  • the project's scope statement
  • a well-defined set of objectives for the project
  • Presence of the client

Question 197

Question
In a WBS each hierarchical level should have about how many interrelated tasks?
Answer
  • 2 to 20
  • 10 to 20
  • 5 to 10
  • About 3 to 5

Question 198

Question
Project success is judged by what criteria?
Answer
  • On-time & on budget
  • On budget & to scope
  • On time, within budget, to scope, and project impact on the organization.
  • To scope & impact on the organization

Question 199

Question
What is the RACI Matrix?
Answer
  • Recently Added Control Incident reporting matrix.
  • Matrix of Responsible and Certified Individuals
  • Resource Allocation & Cost Inventory matrix
  • Responsible, Accountable, Consult & Inform matrix

Question 200

Question
The __________is a list of the project activities with major activities broken down into subactivities.
Answer
  • linear responsibility chart
  • WBS
  • activity prioritization
  • PCMCIA
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