Virology (week 7)

Kathryn Borg
Quiz by Kathryn Borg, updated more than 1 year ago
Kathryn Borg
Created by Kathryn Borg over 4 years ago
13
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Description

DVM2 Virology Quiz on Virology (week 7), created by Kathryn Borg on 05/07/2016.
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What genera belong to the family Coronaviridae?
Answer
  • Torovirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Orbivirus
  • Rotavirus

Question 2

Question
What is interesting about the coronavirus genera?
Answer
  • They cause a wide variety of clinical disease
  • The virus is highly stable in the environment, surviving years without a host
  • The virus is resistant to pH
  • The virus causes latent infection

Question 3

Question
What clinical symptoms do coronaviruses cause?
Answer
  • Enteric
  • Neurological
  • Respiratory
  • Immunological

Question 4

Question
What is the basic structure of coronaviridae?
Answer
  • Non-enveloped, spherical, single stranded positive sense RNA
  • Enveloped, spherical, single stranded positive sense RNA
  • Enveloped, spherical, single stranded DNA
  • Enveloped, spherical, double stranded positive sense RNA
  • Non-enveloped, spherical, double stranded positive sense RNA

Question 5

Question
What areas of the body does the coronaviridae have a "tropism" for?
Answer
  • Respiratory and/or gastrointestinal epithelium
  • Respiratory and/or myocaridal epithelium
  • Bone marrow and lymph nodes
  • Respiratory and/or circulatory system endothelium

Question 6

Question
Why is Bovine Coronavirus Diarrhoea important?
Answer
  • Second most common cause of diarrhoea in calves
  • Most common cause of diarrhoea in calves
  • Most common cause of abortions in cattle
  • Leads to infertility in cattle

Question 7

Question
When are calves most likely to be affected by Bovine coronavirus diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Less than 2 weeks old – diarrhoea lasts 4-5 days
  • Less than 10 weeks old – diarrhoea lasts 2-10 days
  • Less than 2 weeks old – diarrhoea lasts 2-10 days
  • Around 7 months old- diarrhoea lasts 4-5 days

Question 8

Question
How is Bovine coronavirus diarrhoea transmitted?
Answer
  • Faecal–oral route of transmission
  • Droplet transmission
  • Vector transmission
  • Venereal transmission
  • Fomite transmission

Question 9

Question
The bovine coronavirus replicates in mature small intestinal epithelial cells, what does this effect?
Answer
  • Fluid absorption and digestion of disaccharides is reduced
  • Build up of fibrosis tissue due to damage, resulting in gut motility being reduced
  • Fluid absorption and digestion of fats is reduced
  • Fluid absorption increases causing oedema

Question 10

Question
Match the correct virus to it's epidemiology and clinical signs
Answer
  • Por Haemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis
  • Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus
  • Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea
  • Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus

Question 11

Question
What is thought to be a mutant of Feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV)?
Answer
  • Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)
  • Feline panleukopaenia
  • Feline Herpesvirus
  • Feline adenovirus

Question 12

Question
How do FIPV and FECV differ?
Answer
  • FECV causes a mild or inapparent enteritis while FIPV is a sporadic, fatal disease of young cats
  • FIPV causes a mild or inapparent enteritis while FECVV is a sporadic, fatal disease of young cats
  • FECV is always asymptomatic in domestic cats while FIPV is a sporadic, fatal disease of young cats
  • FIPV is always asymptomatic in domestic cats while FECV is a sporadic, fatal disease of young cats

Question 13

Question
What is the epidemiology of FIPV?
Answer
  • Occurs sporadically in multi-cat households or catteries
  • Cats of any age may be affected: Less than one year or older than ten are most susceptible
  • Occurs endemically to only Australia and the USA
  • Occurs only in female cats
  • Occurs only in adult cats

Question 14

Question
How is FIPV transmitted?
Answer
  • Shed in faeces and oronasal secretions, transmission by inhalation, or ingestion
  • Shed in urine, transmission ingestion
  • Shed in papules on the skin, transmission by direct contact
  • Transmission by vectors

Question 15

Question
In infected households ~ 15% of cats are persistently infected with FIPV
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
What is true of the pathogenesis of FIP?
Answer
  • Infection does not always result in disease
  • FECV infection sensitises cats to FIPV as antibody enhances uptake by macrophages`
  • Most infected kittens develop an effective cell-mediated immune response and eliminate the virus
  • Generally infected kittens develop the severe form of the disease due to lacking a mature immune system
  • FIP causes disease 90% of the time when an animal becomes infected

Question 17

Question
What happens after FIP exposure?

Question 18

Question
Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious, economically important disease of chickens worldwide
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
What is the pathogenesis of infectious beonchitis?
Answer
  • Respiratory system is the site of primary replication
  • Virus distributed widely – oviducts, kidneys and Bursa severity of lesions determined by strain virulence
  • Viraemia within 1-2 days of exposure
  • Gastrointestinal system is the site of primary replication
  • Viraemia within 5-7 days of exposure
  • 48 hour incubation
  • 72 hour incubation

Question 20

Question
How is infectious bronchitis spread?
Answer
  • Primarily respiratory transmission by aerosol (shed from respiratory tract for several weeks) and recovered from faeces and eggs
  • Primarily faecal-oral route
  • Vector transmission
  • Venereal transmission

Question 21

Question
In what age group are the clinical signs of infectious bronchitis the most severe?
Answer
  • In young birds
  • In adult birds
  • In aged birds
  • In embryos, causing death

Question 22

Question
What are the clinical signs of infectious bronchitis?
Answer
  • Rales and gasping in older birds
  • Reduced egg production
  • In animals <3weeks there is gasping, nasal exudate and can result in mortality from occluded bronchi
  • Disease symptoms for 7 days in individuals
  • Disease symptoms for 10 – 14 days in flock
  • Disease symptoms for 20 – 25 days in flock
  • Disease symptoms for 14 days in individuals

Question 23

Question
How is infectious bronchitis diagnosed?
Answer
  • Virus isolation (egg inoculation) and serology (neutralisation, ELISA, HI)
  • Virus isolation (egg inoculation) and bacterial culture
  • Bacterial culture and PCR
  • Physical examination

Question 24

Question
Is there a vaccine available to prevent infectious bronchitis?
Answer
  • Yes, live and killed vaccines are available
  • Yes, a live vaccine is available only
  • No vaccines are available
  • A vaccine was available until the virus mutated in 2015

Question 25

Question
How are coronaviruses spread?
Answer
  • Inhalation and ingestion - faecal oral route or via aerosol
  • Fomite spread
  • Vector borne transmission
  • Ingestion- oral route

Question 26

Question
How contagious are Coronaviruses?
Answer
  • Variable (depending on the virus)
  • Not contagious but are infectious
  • Highly contagious

Question 27

Question
What is the basic structure of togaviridae?
Answer
  • Enveloped ss + sense RNA viruses with an Icosahedral capsid
  • Non-enveloped ss + sense RNA viruses with an Icosahedral capsid
  • Enveloped ds + sense RNA viruses with an Icosahedral capsid
  • Enveloped ss - sense RNA viruses with an Icosahedral capsid
  • Non-enveloped ss - sense RNA viruses with an Icosahedral capsid

Question 28

Question
Which two genera belong to Togaviridae?
Answer
  • Rubivirus
  • Alphavirus
  • Orbivirus
  • Torovirus

Question 29

Question
Where is Equine encephalitides found?
Answer
  • Confined to Western hemisphere
  • Confined to the Northern hemisphere
  • Confined to Europe
  • Confined to the Southern hemisphere

Question 30

Question
What is true of the epidemiology of Equine encephalitides?
Answer
  • Peak periods of disease when climate favours maximum vector numbers (Late Summer after heavy rainfall)
  • Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis – maintained in cycles involving mosquito vector and passerine birds
  • Can infect humans
  • Horses can act as amplifying hosts
  • Vector transmission in mosquitos
  • Primary resevoir is passerine birds

Question 31

Question
What is correct of the pathogenesis of Equine encephalitides?
Answer
  • Secondary replication in these tissues leads to secondary viraemia of high titre to allow CNS invasion
  • Neural necrosis, mononuclear infiltration with perivascular cuffing and interstitial oedema (VEE also involves respiratory tract)
  • Primary viraemia allows spread to muscle and connective tissues and reticuloendothelial system
  • Replication in local cells - drain to regional lymph nodes
  • Primary replication is in the respiratory system

Question 32

Question
What is the incubation period for Equine encephalitides?
Answer
  • up to 9 days
  • up to 13 days
  • up to 2 days
  • up to 21 days

Question 33

Question
What clinical signs might you see during Equine encephalitides infection?
Answer
  • Low carriage of head with wide base stance
  • Terminal recumbency
  • Range from mild fever and depression to fatal febrile encephalomyelitis
  • CNS signs: photophobia, head pressing, circling, ataxia, blindness, inability to swallow
  • Diarrhoea
  • Oronasal discharge

Question 34

Question
Viraemia is transient and so isolation from blood is relatively easy
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
How might you control Equine encephalitides?
Answer
  • Vector control (insecticides, repellent, insect proof stabling)
  • Vaccination available in endemic areas
  • Antivirals
  • Infertile male mosquitos

Question 36

Question
What are Arboviruses?
Answer
  • Arthropod borne viruses. “Viruses that replicate in their haematophagous arthropod hosts and transmitted to vertebrate host by biting”
  • Arboviruses – Arachnid borne viruses. “Viruses that replicate in their haematophagous arachnid hosts and transmitted to vertebrate host by biting”
  • Amphibian borne viruses. “Viruses that replicate in their haematophagous amphibian hosts and transmitted to vertebrate host by biting”
  • Aquatic borne viruses. “Viruses that replicate in their haematophagous aquatic hosts and transmitted to vertebrate host by biting”

Question 37

Question
Which Arbovirses are endemic to Australia?
Answer
  • Ross River virus (Family Togaviridae) people, horses
  • Murray Valley encephalitis virus (Family Flaviviridae) people, horses
  • Kunjin / WNV (Family Flaviviridae) person, horses ?dogs, donkey, alpacca?
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (Family Flaviviridae)

Question 38

Question
Which arboviral disease is the commonest, most widespread reported in Australia>
Answer
  • Ross River Virus
  • Murray Valley encephalitis virus
  • Kunjin virus / West Nile virus
  • Japanese encephalitis virus

Question 39

Question
What is the basic structure of Flaviviridae?
Answer
  • Enveloped, ss + sense RNA viruses
  • Non-enveloped, ss + sense RNA viruses
  • Enveloped, ds + sense RNA viruses
  • Enveloped, ss - sense RNA viruses

Question 40

Question
Mature Flaviviridae virions are quite labile: sensitive to heat, detergents, common disinfectants
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
What is interesting about Classical Swine Fever?
Answer
  • Stable in meat products for weeks/months. Enabled re-introduction and spread
  • Stable in the air for weeks/months. Enabled re-introduction and spread
  • Not stable in the environment, reintroduction occurred with an accidental release from a laboratory in Germany
  • Stable in milk products for weeks/months. Enabled re-introduction and spread

Question 42

Question
What genera belong to Flaviviridae?
Answer
  • Flavivirus
  • Pestivirus
  • Hepacivirus
  • Alphavirus
  • Rubivirus

Question 43

Question
What is the pathogenesis of Flaviviridae?
Answer
  • Bite from infected arthropod-->Viraemia-->Dissemination to target organs (endothelium, liver, foetus, CNS)
  • Bite from infected arthropod-->Local virus replication-->Viraemia-->Dissemination to target organs (endothelium, liver, foetus, CNS)
  • Bite from infected arthropod-->Local virus replication-->Viraemia-->Dissemination to the heart

Question 44

Question
What is correct of Japanese Encephalitis epidemiology?
Answer
  • Pigs are important amplifying hosts
  • Water birds are the main reservoir host
  • Endemic in South-East Asia (spreading West and South)
  • Infections in humans and horses (dead end hosts) often cause severe and fatal encephalitis
  • Inapparent infections in other species
  • Pigs are dead end hosts
  • Pigs are the main reservoir host
  • Water birds are dead end hosts

Question 45

Question
What clinical signs does Japanese encephalitis cause in pigs?
Answer
  • Reproductive failure (abortion, stillbirths, weak young, otherwise inapparent infection of young)
  • Fever, Lethargy and Recovery or Hyperexcitable and Death
  • GIT dysfunction
  • Total organ necrosis

Question 46

Question
What clinical signs does Japanese Encephalitis cause in horses?
Answer
  • Reproductive failure (abortion, stillbirths, weak young, otherwise inapparent infection of young)
  • Fever, Lethargy and Recovery or Hyperexcitable and Death
  • GIT dysfunction
  • Respiratory disease (oronasal discharge)

Question 47

Question
West Nile Virus can cause (fatal) encephalitis in horses and haemorrhagic fever in humans
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 48

Question
Where can West Nile Virus be found?
Answer
  • Occurs throughout the Mediterranean, Asia and Africa
  • The United States
  • Australia
  • Antarctica

Question 49

Question
What is the difference between the acute and chronic forms of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD)?
Answer
  • Acute disease – bovine virus diarrhoea Chronic disease – mucosal disease (persistent infection)
  • Acute disease –mucosal disease (persistent infection) Chronic disease – bovine virus diarrhoea
  • Acute disease – death Chronic disease – mucosal disease (persistent infection)
  • Acute disease – bovine virus diarrhoea Chronic disease – Asymptomatic shedding

Question 50

Question
What happens when a pregnant cow is infected with BVD vs. a non-pregnant cow?
Answer
  • Infection of susceptible adult cattle usually of little consequence unless pregnant (transplacental spread common)
  • Asymptomatic infection in the feotus
  • Abortion of the feotus if infection late in gestation (> 125 days)

Question 51

Question
[blank_start]Infection early in gestation(< 80[blank_end] days)-- Abortion, mummification, early embryonic death and resorption [blank_start]Infection late in gestation (> 125[blank_end] days)--Mount active immune response Develop antibody and survive (+/- some pathology) [blank_start]Infection early in gestation (80-125[blank_end] days)-- Cytopathic strain of BVDV Foetal lesions, weak or dead calves Non-cytopathic strain = tolerance
Answer
  • Infection early in gestation (80-125
  • Infection late in gestation (> 125
  • Infection early in gestation (< 80
  • Infection late in gestation (<80

Question 52

Question
What are the symptoms of mucosal BVD?
Answer
  • Profuse watery diarrhoea, Nasal discharge, salivation Ulcerative lesions, death
  • CNS dysfunction, death
  • Heart failure
  • Asymptomatic

Question 53

Question
How can BVD be diagnosed?
Answer
  • Isolate virus / detect virus antigens (3 cultures),
  • Serology (4 fold increase in neutralising titre)
  • Immunofluorescence on smears of tissue
  • ELISA
  • Bacterial culture

Question 54

Question
How do you control Bovine Viral Diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Remove persistently infected animals (source of virus)
  • Vaccinations (although not fully protective)
  • Cull all animals when one is found with BVD
  • Utilise disinfectants in sheds and places where animals frequent

Question 55

Question
Which of the below relate to classical Swine Fever?
Answer
  • Strains with low virulence – reduced fertility
  • Moderate strains – more chronic disease
  • Convulsions, sudden death Posterior paresis, paralysis, circling, tremors and death within weeks
  • Fever, hyperaemia, purpura
  • Highly contagious exotic disease
  • 2-10 day incubation

Question 56

Question
How is classical swine fever transmitted?
Answer
  • Ingestion and inhalation
  • Vector/arbovirus transmission
  • Venereal transmission
  • Fomite spread

Question 57

Question
Where does classical swine fever replicate?
Answer
  • In tonsils, spread to lymph and endothelial cells
  • In epithelial cells
  • In the GIT

Question 58

Question
What does CSF cause?
Answer
  • Haemorrhages, DIC, thrombosis of small vessels
  • CNS dysfunction
  • Reproductive dysfunction
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