Introduction to the Study of Language I - Phonology

Description

Steop-Lecture of University of Vienna, English and American Studies, Part I: Phonetics
Petra Gramer
Quiz by Petra Gramer, updated more than 1 year ago
Petra Gramer
Created by Petra Gramer over 8 years ago
149
2

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What is the subject of Articulatory Phonetics?
Answer
  • sound waves
  • perceiving of sound
  • production of sound

Question 2

Question
What is the subject of Acoustic Phonetics?
Answer
  • sound waves
  • perception of sound
  • production of sound

Question 3

Question
What is the subject of Auditory Phonetics?
Answer
  • perception of sound
  • sound waves
  • production of sound

Question 4

Question
What are Articulators?
Answer
  • Way to pronounce vocals
  • People who check others pronunciation and correct them, if necessary
  • Parts of the vocal apparatus, which are involved in speech production.
  • A scientific method to analyze ones pronunciation.

Question 5

Question
What are active articulators?
Answer
  • tongue
  • upper teeth
  • lips
  • lower jaw
  • hard palate

Question 6

Question
Articulators can be split into two groups: active and passive articulators.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
When is a speech sound voiced?
Answer
  • When the vocal folds are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibrating effect.
  • When the vocal folds are spread apart, the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded.

Question 8

Question
What's a voiceless sound?
Answer
  • [s] in Sue
  • [z] in zoo

Question 9

Question
Place of articulation
Answer
  • used to describe sounds
  • denote the place of articulation of the sound
  • location inside the mouth at which the constriction of the passing air takes place

Question 10

Question
What means 'bilabial'?
Answer
  • Sound formed using both upper and lower lips
  • slightly further back than the alveolar sounds, between the hard palate and the alveolar ridge
  • sound produced with the back of the tongue against the velum
  • sound formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip.

Question 11

Question
'labiodental'?
Answer
  • slightly further back than the alveolar sounds- between the hard palate and the alveolar ridge
  • Sound formed using both upper and lower lips
  • sound formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip
  • sound produced with the tongue and the palate

Question 12

Question
'palato-alveolar'?
Answer
  • slightly further back than the alveolar sounds- between the hard palate and the alveolar ridge
  • sound produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth and an open glottis
  • Sound formed using both upper and lower lips

Question 13

Question
'palatal'?
Answer
  • formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth
  • sound produced with the tongue and the palate
  • slightly further back than the alveolar sounds- between the hard palate and the alveolar ridge

Question 14

Question
'velar'?
Answer
  • sound formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip
  • sound produced with the tongue and the palate
  • sound produced with the back of the tongue against the velum

Question 15

Question
'velar'?
Answer
  • sound formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip
  • sound produced with the tongue and the palate
  • sound produced with the back of the tongue against the velum

Question 16

Question
'glottal'?
Answer
  • sound formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge
  • sound formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip
  • sound produced with the tongue and the palate
  • sound produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth and an open glottis

Question 17

Question
Manner of articulation includes:
Answer
  • Plosives
  • Nasals
  • Affricatives
  • Flaps
  • Approximant
  • Glottal stop
  • Fricative

Question 18

Question
"by the tongue tip tapping the alveolar ridge"?
Answer
  • Fricative
  • Flap
  • Nasal
  • Approximant

Question 19

Question
"almost stop of the air stream and air push through the very narrow opening"?
Answer
  • Affricative
  • Fricative
  • Plosive
  • Nasal

Question 20

Question
"sound produced by stopping the air stream then letting it go abruptly"?
Answer
  • Plosive
  • Flap
  • Affricative
  • Nasal

Question 21

Question
"a combined brief stopping of the air stream with an obstructed release which causes some friction"
Answer
  • Plosive
  • Glottal stop
  • Nasal
  • Affricative

Question 22

Question
"orally produced sound; when the velum is lowered and the air stream flows out through the nose"?
Answer
  • Nasal
  • Fricative
  • Glottal stop
  • Flap

Question 23

Question
Criteria to describe Monophthong - vowels?
Answer
  • Vowel length (short, long)
  • Height (low, mid, high)
  • Voicing (voiceless, voiced)
  • Tongue position (front, central, back)
  • Position of lips (rounded vs. unrounded/apart)

Question 24

Question
Are Monophthonges simple vowels with no change in quality?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
Which answers are correct regarding Diphthonges?
Answer
  • vowel sound where there is a change in auditory quality within a single syllable
  • vowels with no change in quality
  • They have a starting point and an end point.
  • You can differ between Closing and Opening Diphthonges
  • You can differ between Closing and Centering Diphtonges

Question 26

Question
Which Diphthonges end in the high vowel? What are examples for them?
Answer
  • Closing Diphthonges
  • Centering Diphtonges
  • ei, ai
  • au, ou

Question 27

Question
Centering vowels?
Answer
  • end in the high vowel
  • end with a central vowel
  • only in RP (=Received Pronunciation, only in BE)

Question 28

Question
What does Received Pronunciation mean?
Answer
  • RG describes the standard accent of BE
  • RG describes the standard accent of North American English (NAE)

Question 29

Question
What is the study of the abstract categories that organize the sound system of a language?
Answer
  • Phonetics
  • Phonology

Question 30

Question
What are the segmental aspects of Phonology?
Answer
  • Features of pronunciation in a syllable
  • Function of individual sounds in a language

Question 31

Question
What are the suprasegmental aspects of Phonology?
Answer
  • Features of pronunciation in a syllable
  • Function of individual sounds in a language

Question 32

Question
Which sentences are correct?
Answer
  • Phoneme is a physical realization of a sound (f.i. the difference voiced or voiceless of the phoneme)
  • Phoneme is the smallest meaning-distinguishing unit in a language, by adding + or - it can be further described
  • Phone is a physical realization of a sound (f.i. the difference voiced or voiceless of the phoneme)
  • Phone is the smallest meaning-distinguishing unit in a language, by adding + or - it can be further described

Question 33

Question
Which statements are correct?
Answer
  • Allophones are phonetically similar phones of a phoneme that do not distinguish meaning and are “regarded” as the same sound.
  • Allophones are constraints on the sequence or position of English phonemes. There are definite patterns in the types of sound combinations permitted in a language. The constraints operate on the syllable level.
  • Phonotactics are constraints on the sequence or position of English phonemes. There are definite patterns in the types of sound combinations permitted in a language. The constraints operate on the syllable level.
  • Phonotactics are phonetically similar phones of a phoneme that do not distinguish meaning and are “regarded” as the same sound.

Question 34

Question
pat - bat- pet --> What is this?
Answer
  • A minimal pair
  • A minimal set
  • Neither

Question 35

Question
Which statements are correct?
Answer
  • Aspiration is the puff of air, an aspirated phone is written with a raised a
  • Aspiration is the puff of air, an aspirated phone is written with a raised *
  • Aspiration is the puff of air, an aspirated phone is written with a raised h
  • Aspiration is the puff of air, an aspirated phone is written with a raised '

Question 36

Question
The effect of the nasal consonant on a vowel is called...
Answer
  • Nazalisation
  • Nasalization
  • Nasalisation
  • Naselization
  • Nasallization
  • Nasalizetion

Question 37

Question
What is a Minimal pair?
Answer
  • feed read
  • bat pat
  • two words with identical form except for a contrast in one phoneme occurring in the same position that changes the meaning
  • two words with identical form except for a contrast in two phonemes that changes the meaning

Question 38

Question
A minimal set is a group of words that can be differentiated by changing two phonemes in the same position
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
A minimal set is a group of words that can be differentiated by changing one phoneme in the same position
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
What does [p'] mean?
Answer
  • It is a released consonant, the release of the air being built up
  • It is a unreleased consonant, there is no release of the air pressure

Question 41

Question
Which one is right?
Answer
  • Complementary distribution= two sounds which are distributed in such a way that one can only occur where the other cannot occur
  • Complementary distribution= two sounds which are distributed in such a way that one can only occur where the other occurs

Question 42

Question
Free variation means...
Answer
  • The user/speaker consciously chooses between two allophones
  • The user/speak unconsciously chooses between two allophones

Question 43

Question
Which is right?
Answer
  • Neutralization means, a contrast between phonemes becomes invisible
  • Final devoicing means, a voiced phoneme having a unvoiced allophone in word-final position
  • Neutralization means, a voiced phoneme having an unvoiced allophone in word-final-position
  • Final devoicing means, a contrast between phonemes becomes invisible

Question 44

Question
A syllable contains...
Answer
  • onset
  • nucleus
  • coda
  • rhyme

Question 45

Question
A rhyme contains...
Answer
  • onset
  • nucleus
  • coda
  • rhyme

Question 46

Question
What is a syllabic consonant?
Answer
  • A consonant that occupies the central part of the syllable. In phonetic transcription you mark them with a . under them.
  • A consonant that occupies the first part of the syllable. In phonetic transcription you mark them with a . under them.
  • A consonant that occupies the last part of the syllable. In phonetic transcription you mark them with a . under them.

Question 47

Question
What is a open syllable?
Answer
  • The syllable misses the coda
  • The syllable misses the onset
  • The syllable misses the nucleus
  • The syllable has the onset and nucleus
  • The syllable has the nucleus and coda
  • The syllable has the onset and coda

Question 48

Question
A closed syllable...
Answer
  • has got a coda and onset
  • has got a coda, onset and nucleus
  • has got neither of the three
  • has got only the coda

Question 49

Question
Vowel epenthesis means the insertion of a vowel into syllables
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
Consonant cluster: the onset or the coda consists of more than one consonant.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 51

Question
CC means...
Answer
  • the 2nd position must be a liquid or a glide
  • the 1st consonant is a /s/, followed by a voiceless stop and a liquid or glide

Question 52

Question
CCC is...
Answer
  • the 2nd position must be a liquid or a glide
  • the 1st consonant is a /s/, followed by a voiceless stop and a liquid or glide

Question 53

Question
process of not pronouncing a sound segment that might be present in the deliberately careful pronunciation of a word in isolation?
Answer
  • Coarticulation
  • Elision
  • Assimilation

Question 54

Question
process making one sound almost at the same time as the next sound?
Answer
  • Coarticulation
  • Elision
  • Assimilation

Question 55

Question
two sound segments occur in sequence and some aspect of one segment is taken by the other?
Answer
  • Coarticulation
  • Elision
  • Assimilation

Question 56

Question
What is right?
Answer
  • Syllabification = assigning syllable structure to words
  • Syllabification = assigning syllable structure to sentences
  • There is the maximal onset principle
  • There is the minimal onset principle
  • There is the phonology sequencing principle
  • There is the sonority sequencing principle

Question 57

Question
Which principle is described: we prefer to syllabify consonants in an onset rather than in a coda -> as many consonants as possible end up in an onset
Answer
  • The maximal onset principle
  • The sonority sequencing principle

Question 58

Question
Which principle is described: it claims that sounds preceding the nucleus must rise in sonority and sounds following the nucleus must fall in sonority
Answer
  • the maximal onset principle
  • the sonority sequencing principle

Question 59

Question
Weak syllables...
Answer
  • contain full vowels and are unstressed
  • contain weak vowels and are unstressed
  • contain full vowels and are stressed
  • contain weak vowels and are stressed

Question 60

Question
Strong syllables...
Answer
  • contain strong vowels and are unstressed
  • contain weak vowels and are unstressed
  • contain full vowels and are stressed
  • contain weak vowels and are stressed

Question 61

Question
What describes: stressed syllables occur at regular intervals?
Answer
  • Rhythm
  • Stress-timed
  • Syllable-timed

Question 62

Question
What describes: distribution of primary stresses in a longer stretch of speech?
Answer
  • Rhythm
  • Stress-timed
  • Syllable-timed

Question 63

Question
What describes: syllables occur at regular intervals, stressed or unstressed?
Answer
  • Rhythm
  • Stress-timed
  • Syllable-timed

Question 64

Question
What is right?
Answer
  • Pitch= auditory perception of frequency (high or low)
  • Intonation= rises and falls in pitch
  • Pitch = rises and falls in pitch
  • Intonation= auditory perception of frequency (high or low)
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