What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?
The one down the middle is called the [blank_start]central[blank_end] nervous system.
The one around the outside is called the [blank_start]peripheral[blank_end] nervous system.
Label the three major parts of the neuron.
1. the spiky parts on the left
2. the main part central part of the neuron
3. the long extension "arm" on the right
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
p - [blank_start]parasympathetic[blank_end]
What are the three main portions of the brain stem?
me... [blank_start]medulla[blank_end] [blank_start]oblongata[blank_end]
Name some diseases that affect the central nervous system:
A - [blank_start]Alzheimer's[blank_end] disease
c - [blank_start]cerebral[blank_end] palsy
d - dementia
e - [blank_start]epilepsy[blank_end]
m - meningitis
m - [blank_start]multiple[blank_end] [blank_start]sclerosis[blank_end]
P - [blank_start]Parkinson's[blank_end] disease
p - poliomyelitis
Name two broad groups of senses:
so.... [blank_start]somatic[blank_end] senses
sp... [blank_start]special[blank_end] senses
What are the three bones of the middle ear:
Label the layers of the eye.
1. outermost layer is white
2. middle layer is blue
3. inner layer is yellow
What is the area of the retina that produces the clearest vision?
Canal of Schlemm
Explain the difference between gray matter and white matter.
Gray matter consists largely of the cell [blank_start]bodies[blank_end] of neurons and is gray because these bodies lack [blank_start]myelin[blank_end].
White matter is composed of axons and glial cells that are white because of their [blank_start]myelin[blank_end] content.
What is the function of each of the three types of neurons?
[blank_start]Sensory[blank_end] neurons carry information [blank_start]to[blank_end] the central nervous system from the senses of sight, hearing, [blank_start]taste[blank_end], touch & smell.
Interneurons relay signals [blank_start]between[blank_end] neurons and groups of neurons.
In other words [blank_start]interneurons[blank_end] process information and relay signals from place to place [blank_start]within[blank_end] the central nervous system.
[blank_start]Motor[blank_end] neurons relay signals [blank_start]from[blank_end] the central nervous system to the other parts of the [blank_start]body[blank_end].
#3 Briefly describe the process by which a signal travels from the dendrites of an interneuron to the dendrites of a motor neuron.
1. A brief pulse of [blank_start]positive charge[blank_end] sweeps through the interneuron and races down the [blank_start]axon[blank_end] like the fuse of a firecracker.
2. This wave of electrical activity, called an actin potential, is propagated by fast-acting, voltage-sensing ion gates that quickly open an close, allowing sodium and potassium ions to briefly flow into and out of the cell.
3. After the action potential has passed, the cell membrane's ion pumps [blank_start]restore[blank_end] the cell's original ion balance, preparing the cell to fire again in as little as 1/2000 second.
4. The axon of the interneuron ends at a [blank_start]synapse[blank_end] (an enclosed junction between two neurons or a neuron and another cell).
5. When the action potential reaches the synapse, it causes a chemical known as a [blank_start]neurotransmitter[blank_end] to be released into the synapse.
6. When sensors in the membrane of the receiving motor neuron detect the neurotransmitter they generate [blank_start]electrical[blank_end] signals that trigger the motor neuron to fire.
What are the purposes of the cerebellum, cerebrum and brain stem?
The [blank_start]cerebrum[blank_end] coordinates thought, memory and learned behaviors. It is involved in consciousness, memory, voluntary actions, [blank_start]thinking[blank_end] and intelligence.
The [blank_start]cerebellum[blank_end] helps coordinate voluntary muscle activity. It is also involved in [blank_start]balance[blank_end].
The [blank_start]brain stem[blank_end] controls [blank_start]involuntary[blank_end] muscles and activities of the autonomic nervous system.
How have the functions of specific parts of the cerebral lobes been discovered?
1. First discoveries were made by [blank_start]observing[blank_end] people with brain [blank_start]damage[blank_end]. People with injuries to specific brain [blank_start]areas[blank_end] suffered paralysis or impairment of specific areas or functions.
2. The advent of neurosurgery led to additional knowledge as [blank_start]stimulating[blank_end] certain brain parts during surgery always caused certain actions.
3. More recent advances in technology have allowed scientists to observe brain activity much more [blank_start]directly[blank_end].
How do the cerebral hemisphere differ in their functions?
1. The [blank_start]right[blank_end] hemisphere
- is connected to the left side of the body
- specializes in the "big picture"
- intuitive approaches to problems
- [blank_start]artistic[blank_end] and geometric intelligence
2. The [blank_start]left[blank_end] hemisphere
- controls the right side of the body
- specializes in [blank_start]details[blank_end], known procedures, and formal logic
- reading, writing, math intelligence
#7 Why is the hypothalamus important?
It serves as the control unit for your body's [blank_start]automatic[blank_end] systems and
is responsible for the physical effects of [blank_start]emotions[blank_end].
It also generates [blank_start]physical[blank_end] desires and
regulates [blank_start]growth[blank_end] from early development in the womb through adulthood.
#8 Why does cell death in the brain or spinal cord cause permanent damage?
Brain and spinal cord cells cannot [blank_start]regenerate[blank_end] or reproduce new cells.
Once a [blank_start]nerve[blank_end] cell in the CNS is dead it is not [blank_start]replaced[blank_end].
#9 Why do foods sometimes seem bland when you have a cold?
The sense of [blank_start]smell[blank_end] is very important to the sense of taste.
Why you have a [blank_start]cold[blank_end], your sense of smell is sometimes [blank_start]diminished[blank_end], making food taste [blank_start]bland[blank_end].
What is the function of the semicircular canals?
Detecting [blank_start]motion[blank_end] to help the body keep its [blank_start]balance[blank_end].
Why are the lacrimal glands important?
Lacrimal glands produce [blank_start]tears[blank_end], which [blank_start]moisten[blank_end] the eye, help prevent [blank_start]bacterial[blank_end] infections of your eye, and aid in keeping the surface of the eye [blank_start]clean[blank_end].
What is the function of the auditory nerve?
The olfactory nerve?
And the optic nerve?
The [blank_start]auditory[blank_end] nerve carries signals from the ears to the brain.
The [blank_start]olfactory[blank_end] nerve carries signals from the nasal cavity to the brain
. The [blank_start]optic[blank_end] nerve carries signals from the retinas of the eyes to the brain.
The differences between rod cells and cone cells.
Rod cells are [blank_start]extremely[blank_end] sensitive to light
and can form an image in near [blank_start]darkness[blank_end]
There is only [blank_start]one[blank_end] type of rod cell, which contains the light sensing molecule rhodopsin.
Cone cells are [blank_start]less[blank_end] sensitive to light that rod cells
There are [blank_start]three[blank_end] types of cone cells, with light sensitive molecules that react to three different [blank_start]wavelengths[blank_end] of light.
Apply number one
How is the design of having the cell bodies of the peripheral nervous system concentrated in ganglia near of the spinal cord beneficial in case of injury to the extremities?
The cell body of a neuron [blank_start]cannot[blank_end] be replaced if it dies; but if the cell body is undamaged, the axon can [blank_start]regrow[blank_end].
Because the cell bodies are in ganglia near the spinal cord,
an injury to the extremities may damage the [blank_start]axon[blank_end]
but is unlikely to damage the cell body,
allowing the neuron to regow.
In contrast, an injury that affects the ganglia would likely also damage the central nervous system.
This location also allows the cell bodies to be [blank_start]protected[blank_end] by the vertebral column,
which would not be possible if the cell bodies we're located elsewhere in the body
Apply number two
What problems would a person be expected to have if his body had no Schwann cells?
Neurons would transmit impulses more [blank_start]slowly[blank_end] and would be vulnerable to"Short circuits," producing symptoms similar to those [blank_start]multiple sclerosis[blank_end]: impaired vision, disturbance [blank_start]of sensation[blank_end], muscle [blank_start]weakness[blank_end], and paralysis.
of multiple sclerosis
Apply question number three
How to reflexes and pain receptors work together to help protect your body from damage?
Pain receptors detect tissue [blank_start]damage[blank_end] and carry pain signals to the [blank_start]spinal cord[blank_end],
which generates a [blank_start]reflex[blank_end] that [blank_start]yanks[blank_end] the affected body part away from danger,
protecting the body from further damage.
Apply number four
Explain the difference between the brain and the mind. Use scripture to support your answer.
Although the brain can be thought as the seat of the mind,
The mind does not consist simply of neurons and electrochemical reactions.
The mind, [blank_start]a person real self,[blank_end] is something [blank_start]above[blank_end] and apart from [blank_start]the physical body[blank_end].
Scripture passages that distinguish the mind from the body or express the spiritual nature of the mind include Romans 12:2, Titus 1:15
a person real self,
the physical body
Apply question number five
Why might alcohol be involved in large numbers of traffic accidents and violent crimes?
Alcohol impairs [blank_start]judgment[blank_end], makes behavior [blank_start]unpredictable[blank_end], diminishes [blank_start]motor[blank_end] skills,
slows reactions, and causes a person to become irritable, angry, or [blank_start]depressed[blank_end].
It also suppresses a persons inhibitions, sometimes leading a person to commit acts that he would [blank_start]not[blank_end] allow himself to commit if you were [blank_start]sober[blank_end].
Apply question number six
How would a person's hearing be affected if he did not have ear lobes?
Since the earlobe collects [blank_start]soundwaves[blank_end] and directs them into the ear,
a person with no earlobes would have extremely [blank_start]poor[blank_end] hearing,
especially if the soundwaves did not come straight from the [blank_start]side[blank_end]
- - allowing them to travel [blank_start]directly[blank_end] down the ear canal.
Apply Question number seven
The hair-like cells in the cochlea are [blank_start]mechanoreceptors[blank_end] because they respond to [blank_start]vibration[blank_end] in the cochlear fluid.
Presence of chemicals
Apply question number eight
Why would a person with a punctured eardrum be advised against traveling by airplane?
[blank_start]Pressure[blank_end] changes during flight will cause [blank_start]air[blank_end] to flow through the puncture
in order to [blank_start]equalize[blank_end] pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear,
possibly causing [blank_start]pain[blank_end] or making the injury [blank_start]worse[blank_end].
Apply Question number nine
How does the crossing of the optic nerves at the optic chasm make binocular vision more efficient?
The [blank_start]same portion[blank_end] of the field of view from [blank_start]both[blank_end] eyes goes to the [blank_start]same[blank_end] hemisphere of the brain.
The left half of the field of view from both eyes goes to the right hemisphere,
and the right half of the field of view from both eyes goes to the left hemisphere.
This allows the brain to process the images from both eyes to achieve [blank_start]depth[blank_end] perception more [blank_start]efficiently[blank_end]
than if the entire view from the right eye went to the left hemisphere and the entire view of the left eye went to the right hemisphere.
This would require coordination between the hemispheres for binocular vision.