Inglés VIII

Daniel Tapia
Quiz by Daniel Tapia, updated more than 1 year ago
Daniel Tapia
Created by Daniel Tapia about 4 years ago
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Inglés I GRE - Cualitativo (Inglés VIII) Quiz on Inglés VIII, created by Daniel Tapia on 11/03/2016.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Read an answer: Little is now about the elusive section of the earth´s atmosphere known as the mesosphere. Located between the stratosphere (the maximum altitude that airplanes can achieve) and the thermosphere (the minimum altitude of spacecraft), the mesosphere is poorly understood and little explored. The most significant feature of the mesosphere is the various tides and waves that propagate up from the troposphere and stratosphere. The dissipation of these waves is largely responsible for propelling the mesosphere around the globe. These wave patterns are further affected when gas particles in the mesosphere collide with meteoroids, producing spectacular explosions, which usually generate enough heat to consume the meteor before it can fall to earth. The conflagration leaves behind traces of iron and other metals and fuels the atmospheric tides radiating outward from the mesosphere. Question 1. The author primarily describes the mesosphere as:
Answer
  • Turbulent
  • Opaque
  • Unfamiliar
  • Radiant
  • Anarchic

Question 2

Question
Read an answer: Little is now about the elusive section of the earth´s atmosphere known as the mesosphere. Located between the stratosphere (the maximum altitude that airplanes can achieve) and the thermosphere (the minimum altitude of spacecraft), the mesosphere is poorly understood and little explored. The most significant feature of the mesosphere is the various tides and waves that propagate up from the troposphere and stratosphere. The dissipation of these waves is largely responsible for propelling the mesosphere around the globe. These wave patterns are further affected when gas particles in the mesosphere collide with meteoroids, producing spectacular explosions, which usually generate enough heat to consume the meteor before it can fall to earth. The conflagration leaves behind traces of iron and other metals and fuels the atmospheric tides radiating outward from the mesosphere. Question 2. Considerer each the choices separately and select all that apply. The passage suggests that the mesosphere is influenced by:
Answer
  • collisions with extraterrestrial debris
  • vibrations from the troposphere
  • ocean tides

Question 3

Question
Read and answer: Television programming is big business, with sales of interstitial advertising reaching billions of dollars annually. Advertising rates are determined by the viewership of the program in question, which has traditionally been determined by ACNielsen, part of The Nielsen Company. Nielsen wields an immoderate amount of industry clout considering its questionable methods of statistics gathering. The Nielsen Company relies on selected households to catalog their television watching habits in “diaries.” The ratings are then reported as a percentage that indicates the number of viewers watching a television program at a given time. The company has come under criticism for choosing residences that underreport daytime and late-night television viewing and for over representing minorities in sample populations. Critics also point to the nonviable practice of measuring how many individuals are watching a given television set and of gauging how attentive the audience is to a program or its advertising. Question 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers the Nielsen Company´s techniques:
Answer
  • Intentionally biased
  • Dubious
  • Worthless
  • Unscrupulous
  • Overly boastful

Question 4

Question
Read and answer: Television programming is big business, with sales of interstitial advertising reaching billions of dollars annually. Advertising rates are determined by the viewership of the program in question, which has traditionally been determined by ACNielsen, part of The Nielsen Company. Nielsen wields an immoderate amount of industry clout considering its questionable methods of statistics gathering. The Nielsen Company relies on selected households to catalog their television watching habits in “diaries.” The ratings are then reported as a percentage that indicates the number of viewers watching a television program at a given time. The company has come under criticism for choosing residences that underreport daytime and late-night television viewing and for over representing minorities in sample populations. Critics also point to the nonviable practice of measuring how many individuals are watching a given television set and of gauging how attentive the audience is to a program or its advertising. Question 4. Considerer each of the choices separately and select all that apply. Which of the following does the passage indicate is true of the household members who report their viewing habits?
Answer
  • Because rating is reported as a percentage, each household is counted only as one person.
  • They are not always accurate when it comes to recording their viewing habits.
  • The indirect influence they expert on advertising costs may not be based all relevant factors.

Question 5

Question
Read and answer: Although multi-organ transplants have become more common, scientists and surgeons continue to face the ineluctable obstacle of time. Current donor organ preservation times hover around five to six hours. Because of the complicated tissue-matching process, oftentimes organs are unable to reach their beneficiaries, wasting valuable, viable organs. However, scientists are hopeful that a certain substance, called the Hibernation Induction Trigger (HIT), will extend the life of a potential transplant organ. HIT is an opiate-like substance found in the blood of hibernating animals. Previous experiments have shown that opioids act as an auto perfusion block, preventing blood from flowing through the lymphatic system to organs, a phenomenon known as ischemia. In a preliminary experiment, an infusion of plasma with the Delta opioid delayed hemorrhaging in certain laboratory animals. When this arresting of activity was applied to the transplantation of organs, physicians reported preservation times up to 15 hours, a more than two-fold increase over standard conservation. Scientists have extrapolated from these findings, further identifying the opioid DADLE as integral to triggering the hibernation process. Infusing HIT-molecule-containing plasma from hibernating woodchucks into canine lungs increased preservation timer more than three-fold from previous findings. This experiment suggests that, should a potential donor organ be infused with these trigger molecules before the organ is harvested, the organ would remain transplantable for up to 45 hours, greatly increasing the chance for doctors to find a suitable recipient. Though these results are exciting, they do nothing to increase survival rates from an organ transplant operation, which currently hover at 60 percent over four years, because patients are still susceptible to infection and rejection. Scientists are a long way from declaring HIT-molecules a safe and consistent method of organ preservation. Still, other areas of science have taken an interest in this research. NASA, for example, is considering the implications of human hibernation for deep space travel. Question 5. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
Answer
  • Ischemia is essential to the organ transplantation process.
  • The same process by which HIT induces hibernation might be applicable to donor organs.
  • The biggest obstacle facing physicians in the science of organ transplantation is the difficulty of matching suitable donors and recipients.
  • Additional time could be saved by computerizing the tissue-matching process.
  • HIT could also be administered to patients awaiting an organ transplant, thereby lengthening the amount of time they are eligible for surgery.

Question 6

Question
Read and answer: Although multi-organ transplants have become more common, scientists and surgeons continue to face the ineluctable obstacle of time. Current donor organ preservation times hover around five to six hours. Because of the complicated tissue-matching process, oftentimes organs are unable to reach their beneficiaries, wasting valuable, viable organs. However, scientists are hopeful that a certain substance, called the Hibernation Induction Trigger (HIT), will extend the life of a potential transplant organ. HIT is an opiate-like substance found in the blood of hibernating animals. Previous experiments have shown that opioids act as an auto perfusion block, preventing blood from flowing through the lymphatic system to organs, a phenomenon known as ischemia. In a preliminary experiment, an infusion of plasma with the Delta opioid delayed hemorrhaging in certain laboratory animals. When this arresting of activity was applied to the transplantation of organs, physicians reported preservation times up to 15 hours, a more than two-fold increase over standard conservation. Scientists have extrapolated from these findings, further identifying the opioid DADLE as integral to triggering the hibernation process. Infusing HIT-molecule-containing plasma from hibernating woodchucks into canine lungs increased preservation timer more than three-fold from previous findings. This experiment suggests that, should a potential donor organ be infused with these trigger molecules before the organ is harvested, the organ would remain transplantable for up to 45 hours, greatly increasing the chance for doctors to find a suitable recipient. Though these results are exciting, they do nothing to increase survival rates from an organ transplant operation, which currently hover at 60 percent over four years, because patients are still susceptible to infection and rejection. Scientists are a long way from declaring HIT-molecules a safe and consistent method of organ preservation. Still, other areas of science have taken an interest in this research. NASA, for example, is considering the implications of human hibernation for deep space travel. Question 6. Given the information in the passage about blocking autoperfusion, which of the following could also be true?
Answer
  • DADLE and HIT must be present in an organ at the same time in order for autoperfusion to be prevented for any length of time.
  • If scientists could circumvent the passage of blood through the lymphatic system, organs would cease to deteriorate.
  • Scientists are close to developing a method to induce production of HIT in a non-hibernating animal.
  • Administering HIT after transplantation is likely to lower the current rates of infection and organ rejection.
  • Isolating and infusing opioids may be the key to retarding the progression of decay in transplant organs.

Question 7

Question
Read and answer: Although multi-organ transplants have become more common, scientists and surgeons continue to face the ineluctable obstacle of time. Current donor organ preservation times hover around five to six hours. Because of the complicated tissue-matching process, oftentimes organs are unable to reach their beneficiaries, wasting valuable, viable organs. However, scientists are hopeful that a certain substance, called the Hibernation Induction Trigger (HIT), will extend the life of a potential transplant organ. HIT is an opiate-like substance found in the blood of hibernating animals. Previous experiments have shown that opioids act as an auto perfusion block, preventing blood from flowing through the lymphatic system to organs, a phenomenon known as ischemia. In a preliminary experiment, an infusion of plasma with the Delta opioid delayed hemorrhaging in certain laboratory animals. When this arresting of activity was applied to the transplantation of organs, physicians reported preservation times up to 15 hours, a more than two-fold increase over standard conservation. Scientists have extrapolated from these findings, further identifying the opioid DADLE as integral to triggering the hibernation process. Infusing HIT-molecule-containing plasma from hibernating woodchucks into canine lungs increased preservation timer more than three-fold from previous findings. This experiment suggests that, should a potential donor organ be infused with these trigger molecules before the organ is harvested, the organ would remain transplantable for up to 45 hours, greatly increasing the chance for doctors to find a suitable recipient. Though these results are exciting, they do nothing to increase survival rates from an organ transplant operation, which currently hover at 60 percent over four years, because patients are still susceptible to infection and rejection. Scientists are a long way from declaring HIT-molecules a safe and consistent method of organ preservation. Still, other areas of science have taken an interest in this research. NASA, for example, is considering the implications of human hibernation for deep space travel. Question 7 The author refers to the experiment with the woodchuck in order to:
Answer
  • Illustrate successful preliminary experiments
  • Suggest genetic similarity between species
  • Warn that the findings are preliminary at best
  • Explain why other scientist may be interested in the findings
  • Suggest the feasibility of inter-species transplant

Question 8

Question
Read and answer: It might seem illogical that the development of modern currency rests on a scientific discovery, but the invention of the “touchstone” allowed ancient societies to create a standard by which valuable metals could be judged. In its most basic form, a touchstone is any dark, finely grained stone upon which soft metals leave traces. When rubbed, a process known as “probing,” precious metal alloy cleaves to the stone, leaving a stripe. The color of the stripe (which reveals the percentage of its content that is base metal) can then be compared to a stripe of a known grade of standard alloy. Despite its primitiveness, this probing process allowed merchants to examine alloys quickly and with reasonable certainty. Though civilizations were using gold and silver currencies as early as 500 B.C., coins were easily forged or diluted with less valuable metals, such as tin or lead. The invention and popularization of the touchstone ensured that pure gold and silver could become a standard expression of value. Question 8 The primary purpose of the passage is to:
Answer
  • Demonstrate that science can influence non-scientific progress
  • Underline the touchstone´s importance in the history of currency
  • Explain how the touchstone is able to measure the purity of an alloy
  • Explore the etymology of the word “touchstone”
  • Refute an historical misconception

Question 9

Question
Read and answer: It might seem illogical that the development of modern currency rests on a scientific discovery, but the invention of the “touchstone” allowed ancient societies to create a standard by which valuable metals could be judged. In its most basic form, a touchstone is any dark, finely grained stone upon which soft metals leave traces. When rubbed, a process known as “probing,” precious metal alloy cleaves to the stone, leaving a stripe. The color of the stripe (which reveals the percentage of its content that is base metal) can then be compared to a stripe of a known grade of standard alloy. Despite its primitiveness, this probing process allowed merchants to examine alloys quickly and with reasonable certainty. Though civilizations were using gold and silver currencies as early as 500 B.C., coins were easily forged or diluted with less valuable metals, such as tin or lead. The invention and popularization of the touchstone ensured that pure gold and silver could become a standard expression of value. Question 9 The author´s description of how coins were adulterated is included in the passage in order to:
Answer
  • Illustrate the historical precedent replaced by the invention
  • Outline for the reader the chronology of the events in the passage
  • Explain the larger importance of the details just provided
  • Give the passage a cultural context
  • Dismiss a misleading counterargument

Question 10

Question
Read and answer: It might seem illogical that the development of modern currency rests on a scientific discovery, but the invention of the “touchstone” allowed ancient societies to create a standard by which valuable metals could be judged. In its most basic form, a touchstone is any dark, finely grained stone upon which soft metals leave traces. When rubbed, a process known as “probing,” precious metal alloy cleaves to the stone, leaving a stripe. The color of the stripe (which reveals the percentage of its content that is base metal) can then be compared to a stripe of a known grade of standard alloy. Despite its primitiveness, this probing process allowed merchants to examine alloys quickly and with reasonable certainty. Though civilizations were using gold and silver currencies as early as 500 B.C., coins were easily forged or diluted with less valuable metals, such as tin or lead. The invention and popularization of the touchstone ensured that pure gold and silver could become a standard expression of value. Question 10 The passage indicates that the advances brought about by the probing process included:
Answer
  • An efficient means of ascertaining the purity of a metal
  • A means by which governments could standardize currency vales
  • A measure of security against adulterated coins

Question 11

Question
Read and answer: Women played a substantial role in the furthering of the Polish art song in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. One notable woman from this time period was Maria Szymanowska, who was both a concert pianist and a composer. Szymanowska was a member of the Warsaw Music Society tho contributed pieces to a cycle entitled Historical Songs. Her songs are by far the most creative and individualistic of the cycle. In addition, Szymanowska composed more than one hundred other pieces, mostly for the piano, including six romances. Her songs most resemble French romances, and she also employs Polonaise rhythms in two of her songs. In all her works, the melodic line is technically superior. She employs idiomatic keyboard writing, wide chor-spacing, broad cantilenas, and interesting modulations. She also uses the most compelling registers of the instrument and pianistic keys. Her romances are on par with those of Beethoven, Schubert, and Mozart. In fact, Szymanowska was praised by her contemporaries, such as Schumann, who lauded her etudes. Her piano playing was frequently equated to that of Hummel, though Szymanowska´s was said to be more ethereal. Thus, she is a progenitor of Chopin in both piano technique and composition. Female contributors to the development of Polish music have been chiefly ignored. From the meager records which have been preserved, it is incontrovertible that Polish women were, in fact, playing, instructing, and writing music as early as the fifteenth century. However, patriarchal societal structures have precluded adequate documentation about, and preservation of, their work. Unless changes take place, human society will be made poorer for its inability to recognize the expertise and inventiveness of these women. Question 11 The author´s tone in the final sentence (“Unless changes … these women”) is best described as:
Answer
  • Nostalgic
  • Emphatic
  • Dismissive
  • Perplexed
  • Didactic

Question 12

Question
Read and answer: Women played a substantial role in the furthering of the Polish art song in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. One notable woman from this time period was Maria Szymanowska, who was both a concert pianist and a composer. Szymanowska was a member of the Warsaw Music Society tho contributed pieces to a cycle entitled Historical Songs. Her songs are by far the most creative and individualistic of the cycle. In addition, Szymanowska composed more than one hundred other pieces, mostly for the piano, including six romances. Her songs most resemble French romances, and she also employs Polonaise rhythms in two of her songs. In all her works, the melodic line is technically superior. She employs idiomatic keyboard writing, wide chor-spacing, broad cantilenas, and interesting modulations. She also uses the most compelling registers of the instrument and pianistic keys. Her romances are on par with those of Beethoven, Schubert, and Mozart. In fact, Szymanowska was praised by her contemporaries, such as Schumann, who lauded her etudes. Her piano playing was frequently equated to that of Hummel, though Szymanowska´s was said to be more ethereal. Thus, she is a progenitor of Chopin in both piano technique and composition. Female contributors to the development of Polish music have been chiefly ignored. From the meager records which have been preserved, it is incontrovertible that Polish women were, in fact, playing, instructing, and writing music as early as the fifteenth century. However, patriarchal societal structures have precluded adequate documentation about, and preservation of, their work. Unless changes take place, human society will be made poorer for its inability to recognize the expertise and inventiveness of these women. Question 12 According to the passage, the musical contributions of Polish women have been neglected due to:
Answer
  • An absence of any documentation of the efforts of female composers
  • Improper preservation of musical scorer produced by women
  • The male-dominated social order that has existed since at least the fifteenth century
  • Society willfully ignoring the talent and hard work of female composers
  • The fact that people did not realize the genius and creativity of female composers
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