Chapter 7

Ryan Tram
Quiz by Ryan Tram, updated more than 1 year ago
Ryan Tram
Created by Ryan Tram over 3 years ago
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Astronomy
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Question 1

Question
Stars with masses below a certain threshold produce most of their energy via the proton-proton chain. What is that threshold?
Answer
  • 0.01 solar masses
  • 0.1 solar masses
  • 1.1 solar masses
  • 11 solar masses

Question 2

Question
Which of the following is considered to be the best explanation for the missing solar neutrinos?
Answer
  • The Sun is fusing helium but not hydrogen
  • Nuclear reactions do not produce neutrinos as fast as theory predicts
  • The Sun may contain matter we haven't yet identified
  • Neutrinos may oscillate between three different flavours

Question 3

Question
How did observations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory solve the solar neutrino problem?
Answer
  • They showed that the “missing neutrinos” had changed into a different type
  • They showed that other experiments had miscounted the number of solar neutrinos
  • They showed that models for the number of neutrinos produced by the Sun were wrong
  • They showed that neutrinos were not escaping from the core of the Sun

Question 4

Question
Why does the main sequence have a limit at the lower end?
Answer
  • Low mass stars form from the interstellar medium very rarely
  • Low mass objects are composed primarily of solids, not gases
  • The lower limit represents a star with zero radius
  • A minimum temperature is required for hydrogen nuclear fusion to take place

Question 5

Question
Why is there a main sequence mass-luminosity relation?
Answer
  • because helium fusion produces carbon
  • because more massive stars support their larger weight by making more energy
  • because the helium flash occurs in degenerate matter
  • because all stars on the main sequence have about the same radius

Question 6

Question
What is the approximate mass of the lowest mass object that can initiate the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen?
Answer
  • 0.08 solar mass
  • 1 solar mass
  • 8 solar masses
  • 80 solar masses

Question 7

Question
Which of the following is most similar in size to a brown dwarf?
Answer
  • the planet Jupiter
  • a red dwarf
  • a white dwarf
  • a Bok globule

Question 8

Question
Which of the following are star-like objects that contain less than 0.08 solar masses and will never raise their core temperatures high enough that the proton-proton chain can begin?
Answer
  • brown dwarfs
  • Herbig-Haro objects
  • Bok globules
  • T Tauri stars

Question 9

Question
What would happen if the nuclear reactions in a star began to produce too much energy?
Answer
  • The star would shrink
  • The star would expand
  • The star would collapse
  • Nothing would happen

Question 10

Question
How much of its lifetime does the average star spend on the main sequence?
Answer
  • 1%
  • 10%
  • 20%
  • 90%

Question 11

Question
The lower edge of the main-sequence band represents the location in the H-R diagram at which stars begin their lives as main-sequence stars. What is it called?
Answer
  • the zero-age main sequence
  • the birth line
  • the Coulomb barrier
  • the evolutionary track

Question 12

Question
On the H-R diagram, the line indicates the location of the main sequence. Which of the four labeled locations on the H-R diagram indicates a luminosity and temperature similar to that of a T Tauri star?
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

Question 13

Question
Refer to the H-R diagram. Which point represents a star in which the proton-proton chain is occurring?
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

Question 14

Question
The Sun has an expected main-sequence lifetime of about 10^10 years. What is the lifetime on the main sequence of a 2 solar mass star?
Answer
  • 1.8×10^6 years
  • 1.8×10^9 years
  • 1.8×10^10 years
  • 1.8×10^11 years

Question 15

Question
What type of star is our Sun?
Answer
  • intermediate-mass star
  • yellow giant
  • low-mass star
  • high-mass star

Question 16

Question
What is the lifetime of a 10 solar mass star on the main sequence?
Answer
  • 3.2×10^7 years
  • 1×10^9 years
  • 1×10^11 years
  • 3.2×10^12 years

Question 17

Question
What characteristic of a star primarily determines its location on the main sequence?
Answer
  • age
  • distance from the galactic centre
  • mass
  • radius

Question 18

Question
In which option below are the stellar types sorted from shortest to longest main-sequence lifetime?
Answer
  • O, A, K, M
  • A, B, F, G
  • K, F, B, O
  • B, A, M, G

Question 19

Question
Consider two stars of the same mass: star 1 has just moved on to the main sequence, and star 2 is about to leave it. How are these two stars different?
Answer
  • Star 2 has more helium in its core and a hotter surface
  • Star 2 has more helium in its core and a cooler surface
  • Star 1 is more luminous and has a hotter surface
  • Star 1 is more luminous and has a cooler surface
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