Respiration Physiology PMU 2nd Year

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Respiration

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Question 1

Question
Inspiration occurs as a result of:
Answer
  • an upward movement of the diaphragm
  • movement of the ribs closer together due to the contraction of the inspiratory intercostal muscles
  • downward movement of the diaphragm
  • a and b
  • b and c

Question 2

Question
In order for the lungs to function normally, the intrapleural pressure must:
Answer
  • be lower than alveolar pressure
  • be between +5 and +10 mmHg above the atmospheric pressure
  • alternate between being less than and greater than the atmosphere pressure
  • change as respiratory demands of the body change
  • be the same as the atmosphenc pressure

Question 3

Question
Most of the CO2 that is transported in blood is:
Answer
  • dissolved in the plasma
  • bound to haemoglobin
  • in carbonic acid
  • in bicarbonate ions
  • in carbonic anhydrase

Question 4

Question
In which vesicular bed does hypoxia cause vasoconstriction?
Answer
  • coronary
  • pulmonary
  • cerebral
  • muscle
  • skin

Question 5

Question
Which sf the following is the site of the highest airway resistance?
Answer
  • mouth
  • largest bronchi
  • medium sized bronchi
  • smallest bronchi
  • alveoli

Question 6

Question
Compared with the systemic circulation, the pulmonary circulation has a:
Answer
  • higher flow
  • lower resistance
  • higher arterial pressure
  • higher capillary pressure
  • higher cardiac output

Question 7

Question
Hypoventilation will cause
Answer
  • hypercapnia
  • anoxia
  • hypoxia
  • hypocapnia
  • a and c

Question 8

Question
Which of the following events is caused by an increased pCO2 in tissues?
Answer
  • an increased pH
  • decreased association between hemoglobin and O2
  • decreased pH
  • vasodilatation
  • b and c

Question 9

Question
Vital Capacity includes:
Answer
  • Tidal Volume
  • Expiratory Reserve Volume
  • Residual Volume
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume
  • a, b and d

Question 10

Question
Which muscles contract for quiet breathing?
Answer
  • abdominal
  • external intercostal muscles
  • diaphragm
  • pectoral muscle
  • b and c

Question 11

Question
Which of the following events are sympathetic effects?
Answer
  • vasoconstriction in the lungs
  • dilation of the bronchi
  • vasodilation in the lungs
  • constriction of the bronchi
  • a and b

Question 12

Question
Which of the following is the respiratory function of the lungs?
Answer
  • regulation of lung blood pressure
  • lung ventilation
  • diffusion of gases between the alveolar air and blood
  • fat metabolism
  • b and c

Question 13

Question
Which factors affect the gas diffusion through the respiratory membrane?
Answer
  • membrane thickness
  • membrane area
  • tidal volume
  • diffusion quotient
  • a and b

Question 14

Question
Gas exchange in the respiratory system of humans takes place in the:
Answer
  • trachea
  • bronchus
  • bronchioles
  • alveoli
  • larynx

Question 15

Question
As regards the distribution of ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q), the VQ ratio:
Answer
  • gradient of change of ventilation is greater than that of per fusion
  • ventilation increases up the lung
  • perfusion increases up the lung
  • V/Q ratio at apex is greater than at base
  • none of the above

Question 16

Question
Surfactant:
Answer
  • is produced by type 1 alveolar cells
  • acts like detergent in water
  • reduces the amount of negative intrapleural pressure
  • reduces blood flow to the lungs
  • increases pulmonary compliance

Question 17

Question
Carbon dioxide transport is:
Answer
  • 70% dissolved in plasma
  • 70% carbamino hemoglobin
  • 70% bicarbonate
  • 10% bicarbonate
  • unaffected by pO2

Question 18

Question
Obligatory respiratory muscles are:
Answer
  • the diaphragm and mm. intercostales interni
  • the diaphragm and mm. intercostales externi
  • mm. abdominales
  • mm. serrati posteriores inferiores
  • all of the above

Question 19

Question
The bronchial muscles relax under the influence of:
Answer
  • epinephrine
  • atropine
  • epinephrine and atropine
  • bradikinine and histamine
  • acetylcholine

Question 20

Question
For the surfactant it is true that:
Answer
  • is produced by type II alveolar cells
  • consists of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates
  • decreases the alveolar surface tension at the end of expiration
  • protects the lungs from atelectasis and edema
  • all of the above

Question 21

Question
For the alveolar capillary membrane it is true that:
Answer
  • consists of alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium and their base membranes with very thin interstitial space between them;
  • diffusion of 02 and CO2 occurs across it
  • has better permeability for 02 than CO2
  • a and b
  • none of the above

Question 22

Question
Dilation of bronchi can be achieved by:
Answer
  • increased level of catecholamines
  • decreased level of catecholamines
  • increase of acetylcholine and serotonin levels
  • increase of bradikinine and histamine levels
  • a, c and d

Question 23

Question
Normal breathing at rest is called:
Answer
  • polypnoe
  • eupnoe
  • tachypnoe
  • dyspnoe
  • hyperpnoe

Question 24

Question
During expiration:
Answer
  • the thoracic cage recoils and the diaphragm moves upwards
  • the intrapleural pressure decreases
  • the intrapleural pressure increases
  • a and b
  • a and c

Question 25

Question
The sympathetic division of ANS affects the bronchial muscles activating:
Answer
  • α-adrenergic receptors
  • β-adrenergic receptors
  • M-cholinergic receptors
  • N-cholinergic receptors
  • H2 receptors

Question 26

Question
Tidal Volume (TV) is:
Answer
  • the volume of air, which passes through the lungs per minute
  • bigger than the Residual Volume (RV)
  • an element of the Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
  • a, b and c
  • 0.5-1 approximately

Question 27

Question
The intrapleural pressure is:
Answer
  • higher than the atmospheric pressure
  • lower than the atmospheric pressure
  • equal to the atmospheric pressure
  • depends on the water molecules surface tension and elastic fibers
  • b and d

Question 28

Question
The anatomical dead space
Answer
  • includes the volume of air within the an passages up to the terminal bronchioles
  • is the space where gas exchange doesn't occur
  • is approximately 140 ml
  • is approximately 500 ml
  • is about 6 L.min-1

Question 29

Question
The Residual Volume (RV) is:
Answer
  • the volume of air. which remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
  • the volume of air, which remains in the lungs after maximal inspiration
  • is about 2-3 L
  • is the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume
  • a component of the Vital Capacity (VC)

Question 30

Question
Which of the following factors shifts the dissociation curve of HbO2 to the right:
Answer
  • increased pCO2
  • decreased pCO2
  • decreased pO2
  • increased pO2
  • increased pH

Question 31

Question
It is not true that Vital Capacity (VC):
Answer
  • is a sum of ERV+TV+IRV
  • depends on sex and age
  • depends on chest measurement
  • is a sum of IC+ERV
  • is a sum of TV+ERV+RV

Question 32

Question
There are smooth muscles in the respiratory system:
Answer
  • on the external surface of the lungs
  • on the medial surface of the lungs
  • in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
  • around the alveoli
  • on the external and medial surfaces of the lungs

Question 33

Question
It is true that the air in the alveoli:
Answer
  • has a higher CO2 content than the atmosphere
  • has lower 02 content than in the atmosphere
  • consists of N2 approximately equal to that in the atmosphere
  • has the name components as the atmosphere
  • a, b and c

Question 34

Question
The elastic fibers in the lungs are situated:
Answer
  • around the alveoli
  • around the terminal branches of the bronchi
  • on the external and the medial surface of the lungs
  • a and b
  • all of the above

Question 35

Question
The peripheral chemoreceptors are situated:
Answer
  • on the ventral surface of medulla oblongata
  • on the dorsal surface of medulla oblongata
  • in arcus aortae and arteria carotis communis
  • in the inferior and superior venae cavae and the right atrium
  • in the hypothalamus

Question 36

Question
Which of the following compounds doesn't take part in the transport of CO2 under physiological conditions:
Answer
  • carbamino Hb
  • carboxi Hb
  • NaHCO3
  • physically dissolved in fluids
  • carbamino Hb and physically dissolved in the fluids

Question 37

Question
Which of the following factors increases the rate of breathing:
Answer
  • decreased pCO2
  • increased pO2
  • alkalosis
  • decreased pCO2 and increased pO2
  • increased pCO2 and decreased pO2

Question 38

Question
The ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio of 0.8 refers to:
Answer
  • the upper parts of the lungs in upright position
  • the middle parts of the lungs in upright position
  • the lower parts of the lungs in upright position
  • in all parts of the lungs in supine position
  • b and d

Question 39

Question
Which of the following does not happen during inspiration?
Answer
  • the ribs move upward
  • the diaphragm lifts up
  • the antero-posterior dimensions of the chest are increased
  • the transverse dimensions of the thorax are increased
  • the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles can be recruited for inspiration

Question 40

Question
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) of men would normally be about:
Answer
  • 4200 ml
  • 1500 ml
  • 6000 ml
  • 8000 ml
  • 10000 ml

Question 41

Question
Oxygen enters a cell via?
Answer
  • diffusion
  • filtration
  • osmosis
  • active transport
  • passive transport

Question 42

Question
Most of the carbon dioxide produced by tissues is transported to the lungs as:
Answer
  • small gas bubble in the plasma
  • gas bound to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
  • bicarbonate ions in the plasma
  • gas bound to white blood cells and albumin
  • gas transported through the lymphatic system

Question 43

Question
The need to breathe is caused by:
Answer
  • a drop in blood pH
  • a rise in blood pH
  • a drop in blood oxygen levels
  • a drop in carbon dioxide levels
  • none of the above

Question 44

Question
Where does gas exchange take place?
Answer
  • bronchioles
  • bronchi
  • pulmonary capillaries
  • roots of the lungs
  • trachea

Question 45

Question
What is the most common portal of entry for diseases, into the body?
Answer
  • respiratory system
  • endocrine system
  • gastrointestinal system
  • excretory system
  • any opening into the body

Question 46

Question
Hemoglobin gives up oxygen when the environment is more:
Answer
  • acidic
  • alkaline
  • icy
  • open
  • none of the above

Question 47

Question
Acidosis is when you blood pH is below?
Answer
  • 7.05
  • 7.15
  • 7.25
  • 7.35
  • 6.50

Question 48

Question
As blood passes through systemic capillaries:
Answer
  • pH rises
  • HCO3- ions pass from tissues to red blood cells
  • Cl- ion concentration in red cells falls
  • its oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right
  • its oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the left

Question 49

Question
The carotid bodies:
Answer
  • are stretch receptors in the walls of the intenal carotid arteries
  • have a blood flow per unit volume similar to that in the brain
  • are influenced by the blood temperature
  • generate less afferent impulses when blood H+ concentration rises
  • and the aortic bodies are mainly responsible tor the increased ventilation in hypoxia

Question 50

Question
Pulmonary surfactant increases:
Answer
  • the surface tension of the fluid lining alveolar walls
  • lung compliance
  • in effectiveness as the lungs are inflated
  • in amount when pulmonary blood flow is interrupted
  • the airflow resistance in bronchi

Question 51

Question
As people age, there is usually a decrease in their:
Answer
  • ratio of lung residual volume to vital capacity
  • percentage of vital capacity expelled in one second
  • lung volume level at which small airways start to close during expiration
  • elastic fibers in lungs
  • tidal volume

Question 52

Question
During inspiration:
Answer
  • intrapleural pressure is lowest at mid-inspiration
  • intrapulmonary pressure is lowest around mid-inspiration
  • intraoesophageal pressure is lowest at mid-inspiration
  • the rate of air flow is greatest at end-inspiration
  • the lung volume/intrapleural pressure relationship is the same as in expiration

Question 53

Question
Carbon dioxide:
Answer
  • is carried as carboxyhaemoglobin on the haemoglobin molecule
  • uptake by the blood increases its oxygen-binding power
  • uptake by the blood leads to similar increases in H+ and HCO3- ion concentrations
  • stimulates ventilation when breathed at a concentration of 20 per cent
  • content is greater than oxygen content in arterial blood

Question 54

Question
In normal lungs:
Answer
  • the rate of alveolar ventilation at rest exceeds the rate of alveolar capillary perfusion
  • the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio in less 0.6 dieting maximal exercise
  • the V/Q ratio is higher at the apex than at the base of the lungs when a person is standing
  • oxygen transfer can be explained by active transport
  • dead space decreases during inspiration

Question 55

Question
Bronchial smooth muscle contractss in response to:
Answer
  • bronchial mucosal irritation
  • local beta adrenoceptor stimulation
  • a fall in bronchial pO2
  • inhalation of air warmed to 37°C
  • circulating noradrenaline

Question 56

Question
In early inspiration there is a fall in:
Answer
  • intrapulmonary pressure
  • aortic pressure
  • intra-abdominal pressure
  • dead space pO2
  • diastolic arterial pressure

Question 57

Question
At a high altitude where atmospheric pressure is halved, there is an increase in:
Answer
  • pulmonary ventilation
  • alveolar H2O vapour pressure
  • arterial pO2
  • intrapleural pressure
  • cerebral blood flow

Question 58

Question
During inspiration:
Answer
  • venous return to the heart is increased
  • less energy is expended than during expiration
  • lung expansion is assisted by surface tension forces in the alveoli
  • lung expansion begins when intrapleural pressure falls below atmospheric
  • the relative concentration of surfactant increases in alveoli

Question 59

Question
The residual volume is:
Answer
  • the gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a full expiration
  • greater on average in women than in men
  • 3-4 litres on average in young adults
  • measured directly using a spirometer
  • smaller in old than in young people

Question 60

Question
A rise in arterial pCO2 leads to:
Answer
  • an increase in ventilation due: to stimulation of peripheral and central chemoreceptors
  • a decrease in ventilation due to stimulation of central and peripheral chemoreceptors
  • a decrease in arterial pressure
  • a decrease in cerebral blood flow
  • a decrease in the plasma bicarbonate level

Question 61

Question
Ventilation increased during:
Answer
  • periods when cerebrospinal fluid pH is reduced
  • compensated chronic renal failure
  • periods when plasma bicarbonate level is raised
  • deep sleep
  • exercise because of the ensuing fall in arterial pO2

Question 62

Question
Pulmonary:
Answer
  • arterial mean pressure is about one-sixth systemic mean arterial pressure
  • blood flow/minute is greater then the systemic blood flow/minute
  • vascular resistance is about 50 per cent that of systemic vascular resistance
  • vascular capacity is similar to systemic vascular capacity
  • arterial pressure increases by about 50 per cent when cardiac output rises by 50 per cent

Question 63

Question
Carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in:
Answer
  • combination with the myoglobin molecule
  • combination with plasma globulins
  • physical solution in red blood cells
  • greater quantity in red blood cells than in plasma
  • greater quantity as HCO3- than as other forms

Question 64

Question
A shift of the oxygen dissociation curve of blood to the right:
Answer
  • occurs m the pulmonary capillaries
  • occurs if blood temperature decreases
  • favors oxygen delivery to the tissues
  • favors oxygen uptake from the lungs by alveolar capillary blood
  • occurs if the pH of the blood increases

Question 65

Question
The compliance of the lungs and chest wall is:
Answer
  • expressed as volume change per unit change in pressure
  • minimal during quiet breathing
  • increased by the surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli
  • decreased by surfactant
  • changed by parallel displacement of the line relating lung volume to distending pressure

Question 66

Question
Respiratory dead space:
Answer
  • saturates inspired air with water vapour before it reaches the alveoli
  • removes all particles from inspired air before it reaches the alveoli
  • decreases when blood catecholamines levels rise
  • decreases during a deep inspiration
  • is equal to the tidal volume

Question 67

Question
Vital capacity is:
Answer
  • the volume of air expired from full inspiration to full expiration
  • increased as one grows older
  • greater in women than in men of the same age and height
  • related more to total body mass than to lean body mass
  • the sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes

Question 68

Question
Oxygen debt is:
Answer
  • the amount of O2 consumed after cessation of exercise
  • incurred because the pulmonary capillary walls limit 02 uptake during exercise
  • possible since skeletal muscle can function temporarily without oxygen
  • associated with a decrease in blood lactate
  • associated with metabolic alcalosis

Question 69

Question
The CO2 dissociation curve for whole blood shows that:
Answer
  • its shape is sigmoid
  • blood saturates with CO2 when pCO2 exceeds normal alveolar levels
  • blood contains some CO2 even when the pCO2 is zero
  • oxygenation of the blood drives CO2 out of the blood
  • adding CO2 to the blood drives 02 out of the blood

Question 70

Question
Bronchial asthma is likely to be relieved by:
Answer
  • stimulation of cholinergic receptors
  • stimulation of beta adrenoceptors
  • histamine aerosols
  • non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • mineralcorticoids

Question 71

Question
Air in the pleural cavity (pneumothorax):
Answer
  • allows intrapleural pressure to rise to atmospheric pressure
  • causes the underlying lung to collapse by compressing it
  • increases the functional residual capacity
  • leads to a slight inward movement of the chest wall
  • increases the vital capacity

Question 72

Question
Loss of pulmonary elastic tissue in ‘emphysema’ reduces:
Answer
  • physiological dead space
  • the surfactant
  • residual volume
  • vital capacity
  • the intrapleural pressure

Question 73

Question
Complete obstruction of a major bronchus usually results in:
Answer
  • collapse of the alveoli supplied by the bronchus
  • a rise in local intrapleural pressure
  • an increase in physiological dead space
  • an increase in blood flow to the lung tissue supplied by the bronchus
  • cyanosis

Question 74

Question
A shift of the oxygen dissociation curve of blood to the left:
Answer
  • decreases the O2 content of blood at a given pO2
  • impairs O2 delivery to the tissues at the normal tissue pO2
  • occurs in blood perfusing hot extremities
  • occurs in blood with lower pH than with higher pH
  • is characteristic of adult blood when compared with fetal blood

Question 75

Question
A diver breathing air at a depth of 30 metres under water:
Answer
  • is exposed to a pressure equal to that at the surface
  • has a raised pressure of nitrogen in the alveoli
  • has a four-fold increase in the oxygen content of blood
  • has a fourfold increase in alveolar water vapour pressure
  • expends less energy than manna! on the work of breathing

Question 76

Question
Cyanosis:
Answer
  • may be caused by high levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood
  • may be caused by high levels of methaemoglobin in the blood
  • is seen in fingers of hands immersed in iced water
  • occurs more easily in anaemic than in polycythaemic patients
  • is severe in cyanide poisoning

Question 77

Question
A patient with carbon dioxide retention is likely to have:
Answer
  • metabolic acidosis
  • alkaline urine
  • cool extremeties
  • decreased cerebral blood flow
  • raised plasma bicarbonate

Question 78

Question
Coughing:
Answer
  • is reflexly initiated by irritation of the alveoli
  • is associated with relaxation of airways smooth muscle
  • depends on contraction of the diaphragm for expulsion of air
  • differs from sneezing in that the glottis is initially closed
  • is equivalent of sneezing

Question 79

Question
The severity of an obstructive airways disease is indicated by the degree of change in the:
Answer
  • total ventilation/perfusion ratio
  • peak expiratory flow rate
  • respiratory quotient
  • tidal volume
  • dead space

Question 80

Question
A 50% fall in the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio in one lung would:
Answer
  • lower systemic arterial oxygen content
  • has no effect on the O2 in systemic circulation
  • increase the physiological dead space
  • lower systemic arterial carbon dioxide content
  • be compensated (with respect to oxygen uptake) by a high ratio in the other lung

Question 81

Question
The total amount of O2 carried by the circulation to the tissues/min. (oxygen delivery or total available oxygen):
Answer
  • normally equals the rate of O2 consumption by the body/min
  • is normally more than 95 per cent combined with haemoglobin
  • must fall by about half if haemoglobin concentration is halved
  • is more closely related to PO2 than to percentage saturation of the blood with O2
  • must double if body oxygen consumption doubles

Question 82

Question
For air to enter the lungs during inspiration
Answer
  • the pressure inside the lungs must be higher than the atmospheric pressure
  • the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure
  • the pressure inside the lungs must be equal to the atmospheric pressure
  • the diaphragm must be relaxed
  • the external intercostal muscles must be relaxed

Question 83

Question
Given: CO2 + H2O <--> H2CO3 <--> HCO3- + H+, what happens if bicarbonate ions are increased?
Answer
  • more carbon monoxide produced
  • more bicarbonate ions produced
  • an increase in protons
  • there would be a shift to the left
  • there would be a shift to the right first, then to the left

Question 84

Question
The values (mm Hg) for pCO2 and pO2 in the interstitial spaces of peripheral tissues are approximately:
Answer
  • 60; 40
  • 40; 60
  • 46; 40
  • 66; 46
  • 46; 100

Question 85

Question
If forcefully exhaling as much air as possible after a normal breath this is:
Answer
  • tidal volume
  • expiratory reserve volume
  • maximum expiratory flow rate
  • eupnea
  • inspiratory reserve volume

Question 86

Question
Which of the following reactions takes place in the systemic capillaries (where CO2 is greater and O2 is less)?
Answer
  • Hb + O2 -> HbO2
  • Hb + CO2 -> HbCO2
  • HbCO2 -> Hb + CO2
  • H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
  • Na+ + HCO3- -> NaHCO3

Question 87

Question
Water molecules on the surface of the alveoli generate surface tension; this force;
Answer
  • inhibits alveolar collapse
  • assists pulmonary compliance
  • assists elastic recoil
  • resists elastic recoil
  • impairs gas exchange

Question 88

Question
What does the ventral respiratory group within the medulla oblongata do?
Answer
  • triggers inspiration
  • decreased ventilation rate
  • nothing
  • for forced breathing
  • inhibits apneustic center, sets limits to over inflation of lungs

Question 89

Question
The region in the brain that sets the limit for over-inflation of lungs is located in the:
Answer
  • pons
  • apneustic center
  • arterial blood chemistry
  • medulla oblongata
  • stretch receptors

Question 90

Question
In Caissons disease pain in the joints and muscles is due to:
Answer
  • formation of N2 bubbles
  • formation of CO2 bubbles
  • due to fatigue
  • due to increase in barometric pressure
  • formation of O2 bubbles

Question 91

Question
Normal value of FEV in an adult is:
Answer
  • 95%
  • 80%
  • 65%
  • 50%
  • 40%

Question 92

Question
The most important gas maintaining alveolar ventilation is:
Answer
  • oxygen
  • hydrogen
  • carbon dioxide
  • N2
  • CO

Question 93

Question
Hyperbaric oxygen is useful in all except:
Answer
  • congenital heart disease
  • gas gangrene
  • CO poisoning
  • N2 toxicity
  • advanced pulmonary carcinoma

Question 94

Question
As one ascends to higher than 3000 meters above sea level changes in alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are as follows:
Answer
  • decrease in pO2, increase in pCO2
  • decrease in pO2, decrease in pCO2
  • increase in both pO2 and pCO2
  • increase in pO2, decrease in pCO2
  • no change in pO2 and pCO2

Question 95

Question
Surfactant is secreted by:
Answer
  • type 1 pneumatocytes
  • type 2 pneumatocytes
  • goblet cells
  • pulmonary vessels
  • bronchial smooth muscle cells

Question 96

Question
Which of the following effects is not observed during prolonged stay is space:
Answer
  • decrease in blood volume
  • decrease in muscle strength
  • increase in red cell mass
  • loss of bone mass
  • osteroporosis

Question 97

Question
Airway resistance:
Answer
  • increases in asthma
  • decreases in emphysema
  • increases in paraplegic patients
  • does not affect work of breathing
  • decreases in asthma

Question 98

Question
Decreases on pCO2, decrease in H+ and increased pO2 causes:
Answer
  • hyperventilation
  • hypoventilation
  • hypercapnoea
  • hypoxia
  • none of the above

Question 99

Question
The intrapleural pressure at the end of deep inspiration is:
Answer
  • -4 mm Hg
  • +4 mm Hg
  • -6 mm Hg
  • +6 mm Hg
  • -10 mm Hg

Question 100

Question
Exercise which doubles the metabolic rate is likely to at least double the:
Answer
  • oxygen consumption
  • cardiac output
  • stroke volume
  • arterial pCO2
  • ventilation/perfusion ratio

Question 101

Question
Sudden complete obstruction of the respiratory tract causes:
Answer
  • a fall in blood pressure
  • stimulation of central chemoreceptors
  • cianosis
  • increased breathing
  • constriction of the pupils

Question 102

Question
The effects of moving from sea level to an altitude of 5000 metres include an increase in:
Answer
  • alveolar ventilation
  • blood bicarbonate level
  • appetite for food
  • exercise tolerance
  • muscle strength