Gesell's Theory of Development: each child's pattern of growth is unique and this pattern is directed by gene activity. Environmental factors influence development. ex: poor nutrition or chronic disease often affect the growth rate and result in smaller stature, regardless of genetic blueprint.
Biophysical Developmental Theories
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development: individuals go through five stages of psychosexual development and each stage is characterized by sexual pleasure in parts of the body -- the mouth, the anus, and the genitals
Stage 1: oral (birth to 12 to 18 months) -- sucking and oral satisfaction are not only vital to life but also extremely pleasurable int their own rights
Stage 2: anal (12 to 18 months to 3 years) -- through the toilet-training procesSiccessfis the child delays gratification to meet parental and societal expectations
Stage 3: phallic or oedipal (3 to 6 years) -- boys become aware of the penis, and girls realize the lack of a penis (penis envy). The parent of the opposite sex is seen as his or her first love interest, and the child attempts to reduce this conflict by identifying with the parent of the same sex as a way to win recognition and acceptance.
Stage 4: latency (6 to 12 years) -- sexual urges from the earlier oedipal stage are replaced and channeled into productive activities that are socially acceptable.
Stage 5: genital ( puberty through adulthood) -- sexual urges reawaken and are directed to an individual outside the family circle.
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development: individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully mastering the stage and progressing to the next one.
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year): The formation of trust results in faith and optimism. A nurse's use of anticipatory guidance helps parents cope with the hospitalization of an infant and the infant's behaviors when discharged to home
Autonomy vs. Sense of shame and doubt: (1 to 3 years): The toddler who successfully masters this stage achieves self-control and willpower. The nurse models empathetic guidance that offers support for and understanding of the challenges of this stage.
Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6 years): Successful resolution of this stage results in direction and purpose. teaching the child impulse control and cooperative behavior helps the family avoid the risks of altered growth and development.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 11 years): Children at this age need to be able to experience real achievement to develop a sense of competency. During hospitalization it is important for the school-aged child to understand the routines and participate as actively as possible in his or her treatment.
Identity vs. Role confusion (puberty): Successful mastery of this stage results in devotion and fidelity to others and to their own ideals. The nurse provides education and anticipatory guidance for the parent about the changes and challenges to the adolescent. Nurses also help hospitalized adolescents deal with their illness by giving them enough information to allow them to make decisions about their treatment plan.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult): IF the young adult is not able to establish companionship and intimacy, isolation results because he or she fears rejection and disappointment. Nurses must understand that hospitalization increases a young adults' need for intimacy; thus young adults benefit form the support of their partner or significant other during this time
Generativity vs. Self-absorption and stagnation (middle age): Inability to play a role in the development of the next generation results in stagnation. Nurses assist physically ill adults in choosing creative ways to foster social development.
Integrity vs. Despair (old age): As a nurse, you will deliver knowledge of development as you deliver care in any health care setting.
Theories Related to Temperament
The easy child: easygoing and even-tempered. This child is regular and predictable in their habits. The child is open and adaptable to change and displays a mild-to-moderately intense mood that is typically positiveThe difficult child: highly active, irritable, and irregular in habits. negative withdrawal toward others is typical, and the child requires a more structured environment. A difficult child adapts slowly to new routines, people, or situations. Mood expressions are usually intense and primarily negativeThe slow-to-warm-up-child: typically reacts negatively and with mild intensity to new stimuli. the child adapts slowly with repeated contact unless pressured and responds with mild but passive resistance to novelty or changes in routine.
Perspectives on Adult Development
Stage-crisis theory: Robert Havinghurst conducted extensive research and developed a theory of human development based on developmental task. The theory incorporates three primary sources for developmental tasks: tasks that surface because of physical maturation, tasks that evolve form personal values, and tasks that are a result of pressures from society. Life Span Approach: the contemporary life-events approach takes into consideration the variations that occur for each individual.
Cognitive Developmental Theory
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development includes four periods that are related to age and demonstrate specific categories of knowing and understanding Period I: sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) -- infants develop a schema or action pattern for dealing with the environment. Period II: preoperational (2 to 7 years) -- children learn to think with the use of symbols and mental imagesPeriod III: concrete operations (7 to 11 years) -- children are able to perform mental operationsPeriod IV: formal operations (11 years to adulthood) -- the transition from concrete to formal operational thinking occurs in stages during which there is a prevalence of egocentric thought
Moral Developmental Theory
Kohlberg's theory of moral development expands of Piaget's cognitive theory. Moral reasoning develops in stagesLevel I: Preconventional Reasoning: premoral levelstage 1: punishment and obedience orientationstage 2: instrumental relativist orientation: more than one right view Level II: Conventional Reasoning: person sees moral reasoning based on his or her own personal internalization of societal and others' expectations
stage 3: good boy - nice girl orientation
stage 4: society-maintaining orientation
Level III: Postconventional reasoning: person finds a balance between basic human rights and obligations and societal rules and regulations
stage 5: social contract orientation
stage 6: universal ethical principle orientation