Summary of Organic Compounds

Lauren Collins
Slide Set by Lauren Collins, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Collins
Created by Lauren Collins almost 6 years ago
18
1

Description

NCEA Level 3 Chemistry (3.5 Organic Compounds) Slide Set on Summary of Organic Compounds, created by Lauren Collins on 08/31/2015.

Resource summary

Slide 1

    Ester
    Alcohol + carboxylic acid --> (conc. sulfuric acid)Hydrolysis of ester:A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidic condition) --> carboxylic acid + alcoholB = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> carboxylate ion + alcohol

Slide 2

    Fats, Oils (Big Esters)
    Triglycerides:glycerol + carboxylic acid --> triglyceride + waterHydrolysis of triglycerides:A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidified water) (acid condition) --> glycerol + 3 carboxylic acidB = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> glycerol + 3 carboxylate ion (sodium carboxylate salt - soap)

Slide 3

    Hydrolysis of polymer w/ ester link (multiple ester bonds)
    A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidic condition) --> alcohol + carboxylic acidB = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> alcohol + carboxylate ion 

Slide 4

    Polymers
    Alcohol + carboxylic acid --> polymer with ester link + waterAlcohol + acid chloride --> ester link + HClAmine + carboxylic acid --> amide/peptide link + waterAmine + acid chloride --> amide/peptide link + HCl

Slide 5

    Amides
    Acyl chloride + ammonia --> amide + HCl (preferred method of making amides as it is a violent reaction).Carboxylic acid + ammonia (heat)--> salt (heat)--> amideKetone + ammonia --> amide + OH-RKetone + amine --> secondary amide with amide/peptide link

Slide 6

    Amide Hydrolysis
    A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidic condition) --> carboxylic acid + ammonium (acid formed in acidic condition)B = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> carboxylate ion (with Na+) + ammonia (base is formed in basic condition - acid donated H+ ion in basic condition) 

Slide 7

    Hydrolysis of polymer w/ amide link
    A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidic condition) --> carboxylic acid + R-NH3+ (basic end of molecule NH2 accepts H+ to become NH3+)B = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> carboxylate ion (with Na+) + R-NH2 (base is formed in basic condition - acid part donates H+)

Slide 8

    Hydrolysis of protein (breaking amide/peptide link)
    A = Aqueous sulfuric acid (acidic condition) --> HOCH2-CH(NH3+)-COOH + COOH-CH2-NH3+ (amine is base so accepts H+ to become NH3+)B = Aqueous sodium hydroxide (basic condition) --> HOCH2-CH(NH2)-COO-(Na+) + NH2-CH2-COO-(Na+) (acidic end of acid donated H+ - base end formed in basic condition)

Slide 9

    Aldehydes
    Can be oxidised to form carboxylic acids. Acidified dichromate (orange --> green) Acidified permanganate (purple --> colourless) Tollen's Reagent Ag+ (aq) + e- --> Ag (s) (colourless --> thin black precipitate or silver mirror)  Fehlings/Benedicts Cu2+ --> Cu2O (blue --> brick red) Can be reduced back to primary alcohol using NaBH4.

Slide 10

    Ketones
    NO FURTHER OXIDATIONCan be reduced back to secondary alcohol using NaBH4*Still mention negative test result*e.g. this is a ketone because there was no colour change

Slide 11

    Lucas Reagent ZnCl2/HCl conc.
    ZnCl2 is a catalyst, HCl does the reducing.Lucas Reagent is used to distinguish alcohols.Alcohol --> HaloalkaneColourless --> Cloudy (due to insoluble haloalkane)Tertiary - fastestSecondary - slowerPrimary - no reaction

Slide 12

    Alcohols
    1. PRIMARY ALCOHOL oxidised by acidified dichromate/permanganate. First to an ALDEHYDE then to a CARBOXYLIC ACID.The reverse of this reaction is a reduction using NaBH4. The aldehyde is reduced to make a primary alcohol.2. SECONDARY ALCOHOL oxidised by acidified dichromate/permanganate to a KETONE.The reverse of this reaction, a reduction using NaBH4. The ketone is reduced to make a secondary alcohol.3. Nucleophilic substitution by PCl3, PCl5 or SOCl2 to make a HALOALKANE - works best with primary or secondary4. Elimination by concentrated sulfuric acid forms an ALKENE (water removed). If asymmetrical, major and minor product formed using Markovnikof's Rule.5. Addition to ALKENE to make an ALCOHOL - dilute sulfuric acid or acidified H2O.This forms major and minor product (H atom goes onto carbon with more hydrogen atoms, OH goes on other carbon)6. Lucas Reagent (see slide) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ALCOHOLS WILL BE OXIDISED BY  TOLLENS OR FEHLINGS/BENEDICTS.

Slide 13

    Haloalkanes
    1. Substitution KOH (aq) must be aqueous conditions, can use NaOH (aq) to make an ALCOHOL.2. Nucleophilic substitution NH3 in ethanol3. Substitution - bigger amine 4. Elimination KOH (alc) - forms major and minor product if asymmetrical

Slide 14

    Carboxylic acids
    1. Acid BaseAcid + Base --> Salt + WaterAcid + Carbonate --> Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide2. Substitution PCl5, PCl3 or SOCl2 to make an ACID CHLORIDE. Cannot be done with HCl as it contains water and would react violently.               Ethanoic acid (R-COOH) -----> Ethanoyl chloride (R-COCl)3. Substitution NH3 - 2 stage reaction to make an AMIDE (slow reaction)               Ethanoic acid + NH3 ------> Ethanoate ion (w/ NH4+) --(heat)---> Ethanamide (R-CONH2)
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

C2: Material Choices Test
James McConnell
Shapes of Molecules
Robert Hebbs
A2 Organic Chemistry - Reactions
yannycollins
Organic Chemistry
Ella Wolf
A Level Chemistry Unit 1 - Organic Chemistry
charlottehyde
Acids and Bases
Sarah Egan
Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
Ionic Bondic Flashcards.
anjumn10
Electrolysis
lisawinkler10
Chemistry General Quiz - 2
lauren_johncock
Chemistry Quiz General -3
lauren_johncock