Dukkha, ( “sorrow,” or “suffering”) in Buddhist thought, is the true nature of all existence. Much Buddhist doctrine is based on the fact of suffering; its reality, cause, and means of suppression. It formed the subject of the Buddha's first sermon ( Four Noble Truths)
Dukkha is everywhere,
Dukkha is caused by greed
Greed and selfishness
can be ended
The way to end greed and
selfishness is to follow the Noble
Noble Eight-Fold Path
2 Right Understanding
Understand the four noble truths
1 Right Thinking
Think about the life you lead and make a commitment to live in a caring and unselfish way.
3 Right Speaking
Speak in ways that are kind, truthful and not hurtful.
4 Right Acting
Act respectfully to living things and respect other's feelings and yourself
5 Right Livelihod
Do a job that does not lead to harming others. Avoid weapon trade, slaughterhouses and slavery
6 Right Effort
Do your best to avoid evil, bad things and do good to others.
7 Right Mindfulness
The Buddha gained enlightenment through meditation therefore you should too.
8 Right Self-Awareness
Control your mind so you see things clearly. Be aware of your own body feelings, thoughts and how you affect the world around you.
Take The Middle Way
Follow a path between the two extremes of luxury and poverty to reach Nirvana
We use enlighten as a Means to clear up, to remove confusion. Light is also a powerful metaphor for spiritual insight. If you have a great revelation about the divinity of the world, you could say you have been enlightened. The era known as the "Age of Reason" is also called the Enlightenment.
L. S. Cousins said that in popular usage nirvana was "the goal of Buddhist discipline,... the final removal of the disturbing mental elements which obstruct a peaceful and clear state of mind, together with a state of awakening from the mental sleep which they induce."