Where do most animals live?
Shallow salt water
What are two unique traits of animals?
Only animals can fly
They behave and do things
uhmmmmmmmm you know the right answers here
Animals must be able to solve these problems of existence:
processing nutrients to yield energy and body building materials
regulate the internal environment of the body
integrate and coordinate their activities (internal and external)
How do animals process nutrients to yield energy and body building materials?
What helps regulate the internal environment of the body?
excretion of toxins
What integrates the internal environment of the body
nervous system/sensory organs
In an absolute sense, all living animal species are successful because of what:
Eggs are so much larger
yolk( larger, cytoplasm, yolk ) than sperm because they contain cytoplasm
yolk( cytoplasm, larger, yolk ) which contains yolk
larger( yolk, cytoplasm, larger ).
What is the function of the sperm?
to fertilize the egg
to activate the egg
What is the function of the vitelline/fertilization membrane?
to prevent multiple sperm from penetrating the egg (polyspermy)
provides a physical barrier against the entry of more than one sperm
The vitelline membrane is called the fertilization membrane after it has lifted away from the plasma membrane of the egg (due to sperm penetration)
What is the difference between sperm penetration and fertilization?
sperm penetrations occurs when the sperm penetrates the egg cytoplasm
fertilization is the fusion of sperm and egg nuclei (2n zygote)
The rapid fusion of mitotic divisions that occurs immediately after fertilization is
A is a 16-celled embryo that is a solid, grape-like cluster of cells.
testing testings tesints aporihg aorha; righ
Blastocoel( Blastulation, Blastula, Blastomere, Blastocoel ) is the process of blastula formation
Blastocoel( Blastula, Blastulation, Blastomere, Blastocoel ) is the point in development when an embryo is composed of a single layer of cells which surrounds a fluid-filled space
Blastocoel( Blastomere, Blastulation, Blastula, Blastocoel ) is the type of cell produced by cleavage of the zygote after fertilization
Blastula( Blastocoel, Blastulation, Blastomere, Blastula ) is the fluid-filled space in the center of the blastula
Blastulation is the formation of the blastula:
of zygote ---> -celled embryo ---> -celled embryo ---> -celled embryo ---> -celled embryo (morula) --->
The excretion of the blastocoel fluid is what leads to the hollow, spherical shape of a blastula.
Gastrulation is the formation of the gut
mouth( gut, mouth ).
In gastrulation, morphogenetic cell movement is
the formation of the gut
the point in development when an embryo takes a shape other than a sphere (invagination)
At which pole does invagination occur?
the other pole
What are three examples of a coelom in the human body?
What is a deuterostome?
The first opening
The second opening
A dueterostome refers to animals that develop a MOUTH out of the SECOND opening formed during embryonic development.
What is the fate of the blastopore in deuterostomes
Which animal phyla develop in this manner? ENTEROCOELOUS MESODERM FORMATION
echinodermata and chordata
annelida, arthropoda, Mollusca
What is meant by the term protostome?
it refers to animals that develop a mouth out of the first opening that is formed during embryonic development.
it refers to animals that develop a mouth out of the second opening that is formed during embryonic development.
The fate of the blastopore is to become the
Which animal phyla develop in the manner of schizocoelous mesoderm formation?
annelida, arhtropoda, mollusca
Select which germ layer matches which fate.
Endoderm( Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm ): skin, nervous and sensory systems, pituitary gland, adrenal medulla, jaws, teeth, germ cells.
Endoderm( Mesoderm, Ectoderm, Endoderm ): skeletal and muscular systems, circulatory and lymphatic systems, excretory and reproductive systems, dermis of skin, adrenal cortex
Ectoderm( Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm ): lining of digestive tract (liver, pancreas), epithelial lining of respiratory, excretory, and reproductive tracts and ducts, thymus, thyroid, and parathryoid glands.
Why must sperm and egg be able to recognize each other?
They must know where to go
They must identify that they are the same species
They must recognize they are in fact sperm, egg
Sperm binding receptors on an egg are what allow the egg to recognize the sperm.
How does sperm recognize an egg?
egg recognition proteins on the acrosome of the sperm (inside head of sperm)
sperm binding receptors
Cortical( Acrosomal, Cortical ) reaction is the term for the fast-block to polyspermy.
Acrosomal( Cortical, Acrosomal ) reaction is the term for slow-block to polyspermy.
Which reaction is the following?
-Takes 1-2 seconds
-Sperm penetration results in electrochemical change that occur in the egg cell membrane, preventing other sperm from penetrating
-Egg forms electrochemical "force field" around membrane.
Which reaction is the following?
-Cortical granules are lined up at the perphery of the egg
-When the sperm and egg plasma membranes fuse, cortical granules move out towards plasma membrane
-When release, cortical granules attract water, which pushes the vitelline membrane away, creating a physical barrier to polyspermy.
Capacity( Fate, Capacity ) as pertains to embryonic development is what an area of a young embryo will become in an older embryo.
Fate( Capacity, Fate ) as pertains to embryonic development is what the area of a young embryo is able to do under experimental conditions.
In regulative development,
fate equals capacity
fate does not equal capacity
Which phyla exhibit regulative development?
echinoderms and chordates
annelids, arthropoda, and mollusca
The disbursement of morphological/cytoplasmic determinates in regulative development would be uniformly disbursed; the same genes are activated and repressed in each cell.
Disbursement( Totipotency, Disbursement ) is the ability of a cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism.
In mosaic development,
fate does not=capacity
Which phyla exhibit mosaic development?
annelids, arthropoda, mollusca
Echinodermata and chordata exhibit radial cleavage
spiral cleavage( radial cleavage, spiral cleavage ). Annelida, arthropoda, and mollusca exhibit spiral cleavage.
radial cleavage.( spiral cleavage., radial cleavage. )
Cleave results in cells stacked directly on top of one another
Cleavage takes place at oblique angles, forming a spiral pattern of daughter blastomeres.
A group of regulatory genes that control the placement and spacial organization of body parts in organisms is
A sequence of nucleotides (DNAs) that produce amino acids that function to turn on or off various hox genes
The larger the organism, the smaller
larger( smaller, larger ) the SA/V ratio.
The smaller the organism, the larger
smaller( larger, smaller ) the SA/V ratio.
Do surface area and volume change at the same rate?
No, volume increases faster.
No, volume increases slower.
In order for diffusion to be successful, and organism must be
thin in one dimension
shaped so that every cell is in contact with the environment
complex (must possess special structures to facilitate the absorption and/or release of substances.
Which level of organization is (think Porifera):
-organisms possess cells which are fundamentally different
-some division of labor among cells
-very little tendency to cooperate
-cells are very independent of each other
Which level of organization is (think Cnidaria):
-possess cells that work together to perform a common function
-tissues are present; cells cooperate
Which level of organization is where a collection of tissues work together to perform common functions?
Which symmetry is one plane of division that dived into 2 mirror images (humans, chipmunks)
Which symmetry is when it can divide more than once to get mirror images
animals are animals that are more or less not free-moving. (some move slowly and remain attached to a surface)
Which symmetry to sessile organisms typically exhibit?
radial or asymmetry
radial or bilateral
Right and left sides are determined by the first
third( first, second, third ) cleavage.
Anterior and posterior are determined by the second
third( second, first, third ) cleavage.
Dorsal and ventral are determined by the third
second( third, first, second ) cleavage.
What is a eucoelom?
true body cavity
no entrances or exits
lined by mesoderm
has only one entrance/exit
Assentery( Messentery, Assentery ) is whre thin sheets of tissues that surround internal organs.
is tripoblastic (all three layers)
messentery anchors for internal