Mutations are a change in an organisms . DNA mutations can result in a change in protein structure or not, these are referred to as non- and mutations respectively. Mutations can involve the of one base for another, or the / of a base.
The reading frame of a piece of DNA determines which acids are assembled into a molecule. Insertions and deletions can cause shifts, the codons downstream of the mutation.
Mutations are responsible for over 4000 diseases in humans. Some of these diseases stem from just a single mutation. One example of this is in cystic , which is caused by mutation of the gene encoding the CFTR protein. One of the most well known genetic diseases worldwide is .
Cancer is caused by cells losing their ability to control cell , to undergo programmed cell and many other hallmarks. Cancer progression occurs following a sequence of in and proto-.
Appropriately label the diagram below
The likely hood of cancer is increased if you are exposed to . This is because mutagens increase the of your cells.