Animal Domestication

katy.lynock
Flashcards by katy.lynock, updated more than 1 year ago
katy.lynock
Created by katy.lynock about 8 years ago
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Degree Evolutionary Biology of Animals Flashcards on Animal Domestication, created by katy.lynock on 05/23/2013.

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Question Answer
S. America Camelids 5 Llama and Alpaca Wild spp - Guanaco and Viacuna Use mito. DNA and microsattelite marker Both guanaco and vicuna Alpaca major intergration of Llama
Fibre Production 4 Today llama,a has thicker fibres than alpaca 1000yr alapaca thinner fibres Spanish conquest = chaos = free breeding Genetic program to improve fibre quality favours pure alpacas
Domestic Pig 3 DARWIN - several breeds geographical wide domestication European pigs - from Middle East to start - Domesticate local pigs
Human Migration 3 VAVILOV - look at wild relatives of domestic plants Area where you find big variance of species = origin Centre of crops
Origin of Cattle 5 W. Asia and N. Africa Africa lots of diversity - with hump (Zebu) and w/o (Torac) Diversity hotspots Correlation between diversity and date Movement of cattle = movement of people
Selection Pressures 3 METHODICAL SELECTION - guides man to sustainability UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION - preserve most values and destroy less valued NATURAL SELECTION - best fit survives to breed
Post Domestication 6 BEHAVIOURAL imprinting behaviour MORPHOLOGICAL - body size conformation eg race horse deep chests and long legs eg pigs fatter at back than front GROWTH RATE - quick growth rate eg chicken FAT - decrease in cattle and pig
Chicken SNPs 5 SNPs consequence of having hybrid species TSHR gene - thyroid stimulating organ gene - involved in metabolic regulation and reproduction Gene has a missense mutation =lack of broodiness = continually lay eggs
Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution 9 SEDENTARISATION - transition from nomadic lifestyle to society which resides in one place permanently - New technology FOOD SURPLUS - Political centralisation, armies EPIDEMICS - zoonotic diseases and high human density HUMAN POP AND AGRI EXPANSIONS HUMAN GENETICS - co-evolution - lactose tolerance DIET - carbs, salt, alcohol (alcohol tolerance) CIVILISATIONS ECOLOGICAL DISASTERS - crops dependent on envi. settings - trading of animals Distribution of cattle, goat, sheep, pig and chicken (chickens 3:1)
Neolithic Revolution Expansion 6 Reasons - population expansion Major movement of Bantos speaking people in Africa Australian expansion Madagascar poeple from Indonesia Banana to Africa from SE Asia Cape region Mediterranean climate, other African crops couldn't grow
Origin of Animal Domestication Diversity 3 1. Domestication 2. Human migration and trading 3. Introgression
Origin of Domestic Goat 8 Capra hircus Measure bones - wide to start Switch to smaller = domestication due to genetic constraints (less G.D.) Hunter/gatherer would have killed largest for food Indication of population increasing = domestication Measure demographic curve Hunting = more males die as bigger Pastoral = even numbers between female and males
Domestic Chicken 5 Gallus gallus 4 ori. wild spp. of chicken Red junglefowl - form SE Asia Gallus gallus gallus subspp. from Thailand poss. ori. Multiple maternal ori. of domestic chicken is S and SE Asia
Domestic Chicken 5 Gallus gallus 4 ori. wild spp. of chicken Red junglefowl - form SE Asia Gallus gallus gallus subspp. from Thailand poss. ori. Multiple maternal ori. of domestic chicken is S and SE Asia
Domestic Chicken Autosomal 4 Yellow skin gene Ori. from G. sonneratii Grey junglefowl At least two ancestoral distinct spp. contributed to the genetic stocks of modern domestic chicken = not a mutation
Bactrian Camal 5 Camelus bactrianus One spp of wild camal in Golbi desert in China - protected due to radiation tests Wild Bactria Camal NOT ancestor of domestic ones 2.53% divergance HIGH Common ancestor 8mill yrs ago
Domestication Steps 4 Initial association with free breeding Confinement Confinement with breeding in captivity Selective breeding and breed improvement
Livestock-Plant Domestication 4 INITIAL MANAGEMENT of morphology of wild plant and animal At least 11,500 yrs before present More accurate dating and new techniques Cyprus evidence - cattle, goats, pigs
Successul Domestication 2 15/148 of >45kg mammalian non-carnivorous species 10/10,000 bird species Diamond 1999
Pre-adaptation to Domestication The Obstacles 7 Diet not easily supplied Slow growth rates Long birth spacing Nasty disposition Reluctance to breed in captivity - eg wild elephant Lack of dominance hierarchies Tend to panic
Start of Animal Domestication - Neolithic 3 Neolithic 12,000-14,000 before present Improvement of human hunting skills New technologies - food storage
Start of Animal Domestication Competition between societies 7 New Guinea 1930/1940s expedition Biologists to inventory N. Guinea had agriculture already Dispersed domestic animals affecting natural food chain Human gatherers cannot get enough food = natural instinct to tame Gradual population increase
Start of Animal Domestication Climate Change Factor 4 Early and modern domestication Areas on map only overlap in US and China Witnessed ecological disaster Iraq, Iran, Syria totally dry due to salt erosion
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