Nazi Germany -History

oliviadev
Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

Flashcards on Nazi Germany -History, created by oliviadev on 05/27/2013.

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oliviadev
Created by oliviadev about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
What happened to the Weimar government? They struggled a lot, as Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933. Germany was in chaos
What helped Hitler set up his party? He joined the German workers party and they eventually became the Nazis.
what happened? Hitler and Drexler's nazi party grew rapidly
How did Hitler change the legal system? Judges had to join the National socialist league, Hitler made sentences more harsh as he had power as the Fuhrer, the judges were Nazis and Hitler controlled the Reichstag, army and legal system.
How did Hitler change the legal system? Judges had to join the National socialist league, Hitler made sentences more harsh as he had power as the Fuhrer, the judges were Nazis and Hitler controlled the Reichstag, army and legal system.
What happened in the Munich Putsch? 8th November 1923, Hitler and 600 Nazis seized a beer hall to get control of Germany overthrowing Weimar.Placed von Seisser, von Kahr and von Lossow in a room.
What were conditions like in concentration camps? -punishing -grey -bleak -hunger -hard labour -sad
Why did it fail? The three leaders organised troops and police to resist an armed march that was planned.
Concentration camps (2) medical punishment, cramped, isolated, separation, emotional, experimentation, death. Groups in camps:homo-sexuals, political prisoners, poles/jews, czech, professional criminals.
What happened when Hitler was arrested? He only served nine months out of 5 years of his sentence. He wrote Mein Kampf and had time to reflect in a nice environment.
What happened to the Nazi party when hitler was in prison? It declined. Hitler was able to lift the ban on the Nazi party on his release from prison and he took control again. He became chancellor and took over Germany once and for all.
What helped the Nazis increase support? Propoganda (rallies, posters, radio etc)
What did hitler do? spoke at rallies etc good public speaker
What is political intrigue?(1) In July 1932, the Nazis won 230 seats,or 37.4% of the vote,so becoming the largest party in the Reichstag. However, the Nazis won 196 seats, or 33.1% of the vote.
What is political intrigue? Whilst they were still the largest party, they had therefore lost some support in the course of the year. Without scheming that followed, perhaps Nazis would have gradually lost support.
Political intrigue (3) after november elections hitler asked to become chancellor again. President Hindenburg said no. von Papen became chancellor again.
Political intrigue (4) Then came von Schleicher. Von papen wanted power again. Thought he could control Hitler. Jan 1933, Hitler chancellor.
Why were religious groups persecuted by the Nazis? Catholic church were a threat-divided loyalties,supported a different party. Protestants-opposed nazism. These religions were persecuted. Priests were sent to camps and schools were removed.
When was the Reichstag fire? 27th February 1933, Marinus van der Lubbe arrested. Hitler blamed Communists and they were seen as bad.
what was Gleichshaltung? every part of Germany was controlled by Nazis
How important were censorship and propoganda? Media was censored and manipulated. Non Nazi newspapers shut down, mass rallies,radios with nazi ideas blared out in streets and cafes, cinema was censored to show Nazi films, posters and books were used also censored.
How did the nazis control the arts? Music (jazz) was banned, german folk music encouraged. Theatre was focused on german history and drama. Architecture was greek/rome inspired. Art was Germany's past greatness inspired and not modern.
What was the importance of the night of the long knives? killed SA leaders. 30th June 1934
What did Nazi paintings show? .the Nazi idea of the simple peasant life .hard work as heroic .the perfect aryan. German men and women had perfect bodies. .women as mothers/housewives.
How did the Nazis control sport? Sport was encouraged at school as Hitler wanted a fit and healthy nation. The Berlin Olympics of 1936 were a great PR stunt for Hitler.
How did the Nazis control the young? Everyone in Germany had to go to school until the age of 14. After that schooling was optional. Boys and girls separate. Teachers swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler. The curriculum was military based for boys.
Nazi control over young (2) Girls prepared to become homemakers and mothers. Nazi textbooks were used. Lessons began and ended with the words "Heil Hitler". The Hitler Youth was created for girls and boys.
What was an example of people who didn't support hitler? The Edelweiss pirates. They listened to swing music and were a group of teenagers. Girls had long hair and trousers and they were often violent towards the Hitler Youth.
What was the role of women? .to be homemakers, they were not to wear make up, had to be blonde,athletic and heavy hipped, wore flat shoes, did not smoke, did not work, did all the duties in the house,took no interest in politics.
What did the nazis do to change the role of women? They encouraged marriage (1933 law), medals were awarded to women with large families, a divorce was not allowed,unmarried women could donate babies to the fuhrer. Women were forced to leave their jobs.
What were nazi women supposed to look like? Healthy, bun or plaits for hair,no trousers, heels or make up, no dyeing or styling hair, no slimming (bad for childbearing).
How was unemployment reduced? The labour service corps, a scheme to introduce young men into manual labour. Job creation schemes were important, Nazis left out some figures of unemployment too. Military were reinstated.
What was bad about the Nazis? lack of freedom, life, fun, joy etc
What was the Nazi theory of the racial state? the germans were a master race,jews were subhumans and unimportant, a pure aryan race had to be created and selective breeding was undertaken.
What was the Dawes plan? Stresemann persuaded the French, British and Americans to lower reparations payments. Charles Dawes was a leader in the plan being set up.
How did the German Jews lives change between 1933-39? Jews were sacked from jobs, humiliated, banned from parks and public spaces,not allowed in the army, had to carry identity cards,had the letter J on their passports.
What were the events of 9th November 1938? Jews property, shops,homes and synagogues were attacked after a Polish Jew shot an official in Paris the day before. Windows were smashed and it became known as Kristallnacht.
What was the aftermath of Kristallnacht? 100 Jews killed, 20,000 sent to concentration camps.
Why was the support of the army important for Hitler? He needed help to conduct rallies and intimidation and get people to follow him. When Hindenburg died in August 1934, the army swore allegiance to Hitler who became the Fuhrer (the absolute leader).
What were the terms of the Dawes Plan? 1 billion marks for first year of reparations then 2.5 billion for four years after Ruhr evacuated in 1925 USA Loans
What happened in 1939? Jews were forced into ghettos, had to hand in radios and had to do forced emigration.
What did the SS do? They were formed in 1925 to act as a bodyguard unit for Hitler and was led by Himmler after 1929. Members wore black. They showed total obedience to the Fuhrer and married racially pure wives.
Which other groups were persecuted? Gypsies,disabled. In 1939, the mentally ill were killed in a euthanasia campaign. 6,000 babies, children and teenagers killed by starvation or injection. Many alcoholics and others were sterilised.
What new currency was used instead of the Mark? The rentenmark
What was the SS's role after the Night of the Long Knives? They had to remove all opposition from Germany.
What was the Young Plan? 1929, Reparations figure reduced from £6.6 billion to £1.85 million by american banker Owen Young. Time to pay was increased to 59 years.
What was the Gestapo's role? The secret police was set up in 1933 by Goering and in 1936 was under control of Himmler and the SS. The Gestapo arrested and imprisoned those opposing the state, usually in concentration camps.
How many people were under arrest for political crimes by 1939? About 160,000
What was the Locarno treaty? 1925, Germany signed treaties with Belgium, Italy, France and Britain. Borders were kept between Germany, Belgium and France. Co-operation between these countries began again.
What was the Kellogg Briand pact? 1928, Germany and 64 other nations signed. Armies for self -defence and international disputes solved by peaceful means. 1925:France withdrew from the Ruhr, allies agreed to the Dawes and Young Plan.
What was the league of Nations? Germany had to join the league of Nations in 1926 for the Locarno treaties to come into action. The league was first established in 1920 but Germany were not allowed to join because of the treaty of Versailles.
What was a better period for Germany,politically and socially? 1924-1929
When did Stresemann die? October 3rd 1929,this caused huge problems for Germany
When was the Wall Street Crash and what was the effect on Germany? October 1929 and Germany were struggling as it happened in America and they could no longer lend Germany money for reparations.
What was on the rise? unemployment and serious poverty.
Explain the events of the Spartacist uprising Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht leaders. Spartacist uprising 6th January 1919 attempt to overthrow Weimar government. Communist group. Uprising put down by army and Freikorps. Leaders killed.
What happened in the Kapp Putsch? the Freikorps attempt to seize power in 1920 led by Ehrhardt
What were Germany's economic problems? Germany were struggling to pay £6.6 billion in reparations. They experienced inflation and the value of the German currency began to fall rapidly after they printed more money.
What caused further problems for Germany? the occupation of the Ruhr by France in 1921 and then again in 1923. The occupation was met with passive resistance and a strike causing more violence.
what happened as a result of the strike? the government had to help the strikers and their families and print even more money. the mark collapsed and inflation turned into hyperinflation.
What happened in the summer of 1923? Gustav Stresemann became chancellor and he began to steady things and introduced a new currency. He developed the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan and other initiatives to help Germany recover.
What happened by the early autumn of 1918? The German army was being pushed back on the Western Front in France and the naval blockade had resulted in shortages of food for the German people. German defeat was near.
What happened in early October 1918? A new government was formed in Germany led by Prince Max of Baden. It included members of the Reichstag parliament.
Who approached President Wilson of the USA to discuss ending the war and why were they rejected? Prince Max and he was rejected because Wilson said he would not discuss peace while the Kaiser and his military advisors were still in control.
What happened at the end of October 1918? German sailors at Kiel refused to attack the British navy as they felt it would be foolish. Unrest began to spread across Germany.
When did the Kaiser abdicate? 9th November 1918
When was the armistice? 11th November 1918, on the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points
Who were the first leaders of the Weimar Republic? Ebert (first president),Scheidemann(first chancellor)
What was the Treaty of Versailles? Signed on 28th June 1919,it was the treaty that ended the war altogether. It had a huge impact on Germany.
What are the terms of the treaty of versailles? The War Guilt Clause (Germany had to accept blame for WW1), denial of entry to the league of nations, loss of around 13% of land and population, severe military restrictions and reparations of £6.6 billion
When did WW1 start? August 1914
Who were the Allies? Britain, France and Russia. The USA joined the allies in 1917.
Who were the central powers? Germany, Austria Hungary and Turkey