Organisms and life processes (enzymes)

ashley.amber
Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

Flashcards on Organisms and life processes (enzymes), created by ashley.amber on 05/29/2013.

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ashley.amber
Created by ashley.amber about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
why do you get cramps if a 'burst' of physical activity is continued for too long? anaerobic respiration can only provide enough energy for the muscles to keep going for a short period- a build up of lactic acid can cause cramps
what are the 3 main ways molecules and ions can move through a membrane? diffusion active transport osmosis
what is diffusion? the movement of a substance towards the concentration gradient (e.g if a cell was producing co2 in respiration, the concentration will be higher inside)
what is active transport? the movement of particles against the concentration gradient using energy from respiration
what increases the rate of diffusion? a steep concentration gradient high temperatures large surface area to volume ratio
what is osmosis? the movement of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution (against the concentration gradient)
what is the cell wall of a fungus made of? chitin, not glucose
what is a bacteria's cell wall made of? polysaccharides and protein
function of the slime capsule extra protection for the cell
function of the flagella? to help the bacteria swim
function of the plasmids? contain the bacteria's genes
what do bacterium have instead of a nucleus? a chromosome (loop of DNA)
what is a substrate? a molecule an enzyme acts on
what is the small area on an enzyme's surface called? an active site
how does an enzyme lower the energy needed for a reaction? a substrate molecule enters an active site, which lowers the energy needed for a reaction to take place, allowing products to be formed more easily
what 2 factors effect an enzymes ability? temperature and pH
what is the optimum temperature for an enzyme to work at? 37 degrees C higher temp- enzyme denatures
why does a higher temp affect an enzymes ability to work? a higher temp gives molecules of enzymes and substrates more energy so they collide more often/the reaction is more frequent.
what is the optimum pH level for an enzyme? the inside of a cell is neutral, so they work best at pH7
what happens to an enzyme if the surrounding is on either side of pH7? the activity decreases, pH effects structure of enzymes and changes the shape of the active site so it doesn't fit as well
which enzyme works best at pH2? pepsin
what is respiration? oxygen is used to oxidise food (glucose), co2 and water is released as waste
what two types of energy does glucose release when it is oxidized? some heat energy, mainly chemical energy
what is chemical energy used for? contraction of muscles active transport building of large protiens cell division
what is the word equation for aerobic respiration? glucose+Oxygen- carbon dioxide+water(+energy)
what are the advantages of anerobic respiration? can occur when oxygen is short in supply (muscle cells)
what are the disadvantages of anaerobic respiration? gluscose isn't completely broken down, less energy released
when do muscle cells respire anaerobically? when they're short of oxygen
why do muscles respire anaerobically? when muscles are overworked, blood can't reach them fast enough to deliver enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.
what is the word equation for anaerobic respiration glucose-lactic acid (+some energy)
what are the 7 life processes? Movement- by muscle action/slow growth Respiration- get energy from food Sensitivity- respond to enviromental changes Growth- increases in size/mass Excretion- remove toxic products Nutrition- find/make food
what are the 7 life processes? Movement- by muscle action/slow growth Respiration- get energy from food Sensitivity- respond to enviromental changes Growth- increases in size/mass Excretion- remove toxic products Nutrition- find/make food
features of a plant cell cell wall membrane vacuole chloroplasts cytoplasm nucleus mitochondria
features of an animal cell nucleus mitochondria cytoplasm membrane
function of cytoplasm site of chemical reactions
function of the nucleus controls activity in cells- contain genetic material
function of the membrane selectively permeable wall of the cell
function of the mitochindria release energy that the cell can use for respiration
function of the cell wall made of celulose, keeps cell's shape. large holes- freely permeable
function of the vacuole filled with cell sap- stores dissolved sugar, mineral ions and other solutes
function of the chloroplasts absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
what controls chemical reactions in cells? enzymes (biological catalysts)
why do we need enzymes? enzymes speed up reactions- temps inside organisms are low and without enzymes, reactions would be far to slow for life to continue
why are there thousands of different enzymes? because they're made of protien molecules which come in various shapes/structures