Realism, Idealism, and Skepticism on Knowledge

Flashcards by badern, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by badern over 5 years ago


Made for Rockhurst University course, Reality and Human Existence.

Resource summary

Question Answer
realism accepts that the world is real and we get knowledge from the world
idealism denies the world is real, but we do have true ideas
skepticism denies that the world is real and we do not have real knowledge
Pythagoras of Samos invented the term philosophy
philosophy "philia tes sophia"; love of wisdom
mysticism combines spirituality and the search for truth
First Cause the ultimate explanation of reality
epistemology study of knowledge
Process of Abstraction gaining knowledge by "pulling it out" from the world; has two parts: Act of Sensation and the Act of the Intellect
corporeal physical body
phantasm realist term for memories; "present to the mind"
ultimate propositions starting points for knowledge
first principles self-evident proposition that is immediately grasped by the intellect
intelligere (intellect) to read what is inside
Correspondence Theory of Truth an objective theory of truth since ideas are correlated with objects outside the mind
accident a nonessential property; quality secondary to a things essence
cogitative pertaining to human knowledge
corruption ceasing to be of a thing; from being to non-being
custom David Hume's concept that refers to the principle by which humans come to believe that things are connected, although reason cannot find any connection
determined not free
existential pertaining to the existence of a thing
form a shape or pattern of a thing
genus a class, kind, or group marked by common characteristic(s)
hylomorphism "matter/form"; indicates the unified nature of composite substances
incorporeal immaterial; no physical body
incorruptible immortal; cannot not exist
generation the coming to be of a thing; from non-being to being
innate something that is within
liberty free will
matter that in which or out of which change takes place, and which remains present throughout the change
metaphysics "beyond the physical"; refers to anything immaterial
nature the inherent character of a person or thing
necessity that which cannot be other than it is
perception sensation
purpose whether or not something has an internal direction, plan, or design
quiddity "whatness"; whatever makes something to be the specific kind of thing it is
species a class of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name; a sensible object
Rene Descartes French philosopher who attend Jesuit Universities; father of the modern scientific method
scholasticism what is taught in the schools
absolute truth truths that are undoubtable
Methodic Doubt The systematic refusal to accept as true and certain anything in the contents of the mind which can even be the slightest bit doubtful.
cogito, ero sum "I think, therefore I am"; how Decartes gets out of doubt; if you think, then you are active and doing something, then you can be certain you exist
Decartes's melting wax First: the wax is hard, colored, smelled sweet, and made a sound when struck. Second: the melted wax was soft, clear, had no smell or taste, and made no sound when struck. The idea of wax has not changed. Therefore, your senses have deceived you.
Ontological Argument ontos = being; proves the existence of God from the idea of God; we are imperfect and the idea of God is perfect, and perfect ideas cannot come from imperfect ideas (only a perfect being can come up with the idea of a perfect being, that being being God
clear and distinct ideas are true and certain
Idealist Theory of Knowledge When you see an object, say a baseball, you create an image of that object in your mind (imagination). Your mind can then make clear and distinct judgments, ex. the baseball has mass, weight, and shape.
impressions immediate data of sense experience; that is, the actual feeling in our hands, the flavor on our tongue, the sound in our ears, the light in our eyes, smell in our nose.
ideas (skepticism) the copies, or faint images of impressions in thinking and reasoning; that is, all of our ideas are copies or faint images of things we have experienced
salon gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held partly to amuse one another and partly to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation
Enlightenment time when scientists, like Newton, thought we, humans, could solve all the mysteries of the universe
Post-Enlightenment time when people, like Humes, thought human minds were weak and we can't possible solve the mysteries of the universe
nonsense not sensed
British Empirical School British philosophers that had a similar idea about the senses
Skeptic's Theory of Knowledge We sense what is around us, and they give us an impression. This impression is stored as a faint idea.
Relations of Ideas a proposition that is demonstratively certain, ie. geometry and mathematics
Matters of Fact all other contents of the mind; copies of our sense experience
a priori prior to
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