Physics Topic 3 Key terms

Rebecca W
Flashcards by , created over 1 year ago

A level Physics 3 Flashcards on Physics Topic 3 Key terms, created by Rebecca W on 04/14/2018.

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Rebecca W
Created by Rebecca W over 1 year ago
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Question Answer
acceleration The rate of change of velocity, vector
acceleration of free fall The rate of change of velocity of an object falling in a gravitational field, symbol g
Air Resistance The drag or resistive force experience by objects moving through air
Archimedes' principle The upthrust on an object is equal to the weight of fluid it displaces
Average Speed The rate of change in distance calculated over a complete journey
Average Velocity The change in displacement for a journey divided by the time taken
Braking Distance Distance travelled by a vehicle from the time the brakes are applied until the vehicle stops
Breaking Stress The stress value at the point of fracture, calculated by dividing the breaking force by the cross sectional area
Brittle Property of a material that does not show plastic deformation and deforms very little under high stress
Centre of Gravity An imaginary point at which the entire weight of an object appears to act
Centre of Mass A point through which any externally applied force produces straight-line motion but no rotation
Closed System An isolated system that has no interaction with its surroundings
Compression The decrease in length of an object when a compressive force is exerted on it
Compressive deformation A change in the shape of an object due to compressive forces
Compressive force Two or more forces together that reduce the length or volume of an object
Constant speed Motion in which the distance travelled per unit time stays the same
Constant velocity Motion in which the change in displacement per unit time stays the same.
Couple A pair of equal and opposite forces acting on a body, but not in the same straight line
density The mass per unit volume of a substance
Displacement The distance travelled in a particular direction, vector
Drag Force The resistive force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through it
Ductile Property of a material that has a large plastic region in a stress-strain graph, so can be drawn into wires.
Elastic Deformation A reversible change in the shape of an object due to a compressive or tensile force- removal of stress or force will return the object to its original shape and size
Elastic Limit The value of stress or force beyond which the elastic deformation becomes plastic deformation, and the material or object will no longer return to its original shape and size when the stress or force is removed
Elastic Potential Energy The energy stored in an object because of its deformation
Energy The capacity for doing work, measured in joules
Equilibrium A body is in equilibrium when the net force and net moment acting on it are zero
Extension The increase in length of an object when a tensile force is exerted on it
Fluid A substance that can flow, including liquids and gases
Force A push or pull on an object, measured in Newtons
Force Constant A quantity determined by dividing force by extension/compression for an object obeying Hooke's law- called constant of proportionality 'k' in Hooke's Law, measured in Nm-1
Force-Extension Graph A graph of force against extension/compression with the area under the graph equal to the work done on the material
Force-time Graph A graph of net force against time, with the area under the graph equal to the impulse
Free Fall The motion of an object accelerating under gravity with no other force acting on it
Free-body diagram A diagram that represents the forces acting on a single object
Gravitational Potential Energy The capacity for doing work as a result of an object's position in a Gravitational Field
Hooke's Law The force applied is directly proportional to the extension of a spring unless the limit of proportionality is exceeded
Hysteresis Loop A loop-shaped plot obtained when, for example, loading and unloading a material produce different deformations
Impulse The area under a force-time graph, the product of force and the time for which the force acts
Inelastic Collision A collision in which kinetic energy is lost
Instantaneous Speed The speed at the moment it is measured- speed over an infinitesimal interval of time
Kinetic Energy The energy associated with an object as a result of its motion
Limit of proportionality The value of stress or force beyond which the stress is no longer directly proportional to strain
Linear Momentum A property of an object travelling in a straight line, the product of its mass and velocity, measured in kgms-1 or Ns
Loading Curve A force-extension graph
Mass Amount of matter, measured in kilograms
moment The product of force and perpendicular distance from a pivot or stated point
Newton's First Law of Motion A body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted upon by another resultant force
Newton's Second Law of Motion The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force and takes place in the direction of the force (F=ma)
Newtons Third Law of Motion When two objects interact, each exerts an equal but opposite force on the other during the interaction
Normal Contact Force The force exerted by a surface on an object, which acts perpendicularly to the surface
Perfectly Elastic Collision A collision in which no kinetic energy is lost
Pivot A point about which a body can rotate
Plastic Deformation An irreversible change in the shape of an object due to a compressive or tensile force- removal of the stress or force produces permanent deformation
Plumb-line A string with a weight used to provide a vertical reference line
Polymeric Description of a material comprising of long-chain molecules, such as a rubber, which may show large strains.
Power Rate of work done, measured in watts
Pressure The force exerted per unit cross-sectional area, measured in pascals
Principle of conservation of energy The total energy of a closed system remains constant- energy cannot be created nor can it be destroyed
Principle of conservation of momentum Total momentum of a system remains the same before and after a collision
Principle of Moments For a body in rotational equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise moments about a point is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments about the same point
Projectile An object that is thrown or propelled on the surface of the Earth
Restoring Force A force that tries to return a system to its equilibrium position
Stiffness The ability of an object to resist deformation
Stopping Distance The total distance travelled from the time when a driver first sees a reason to stop to the time when the vehicle stops, the sum of thinking distance and braking distance
Strong Material A material with a large value for the ultimate tensile strength
Tensile Deformation A change in the shape of an object due to tensile forces
Tensile Force Equal and opposite forces acting on a material to stretch it
Tensile strain The extension per unit length, and dimensionless quantity
Tensile Stress The force per unit cross-sectional area, measured in Pascals
Tension The pulling force exerted by a string, cable, or chain on an object
Terminal velocity The constant speed reached by an object when the drag force and upthrust is equal and opposite to the weight of the object
Thinking distance The distance travelled by a vehicle from when the driver first perceives a need to stop to when the brakes are applied
Time of flight The time taken for an object to complete its motion
Torque of a couple The product of one of the forces of a couple and the perpendicular distance between the forces
Ultimate Tensile Strength The maximum stress that a material can withstand before it breaks
Uniform Gravitational Field A gravitational field in which the field lines are parallel and the value for g remains constant
Upthrust The upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid
Velocity A vector quantity equal to the rate of change of displacement
weight The gravitational force on an object, measured in newtons
work The product of force and distance moved in the direction of force, measured in joules
Yield point A point on a stress-strain graph beyond which the deformation is no longer entirely elastic