Arguments in Action

shona.doyle10
Flashcards by shona.doyle10, updated more than 1 year ago
shona.doyle10
Created by shona.doyle10 over 6 years ago
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Philosophy Flashcards on Arguments in Action, created by shona.doyle10 on 09/24/2014.

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Question Answer
Describe the difference between asserting, proving, denying and refuting. asserting = positive statement without evidence proving = positive statement with evidence denying = negative statement without evidence refuting= negative statement with evidence
explain the difference between a statement and an argument statement = one simple sentence not leading to a conclusion. argument = series of statements leading to form a conclusion
Give an example of a simple argument in standard form. P1 all cats have tails P2 felix is a cat THEREFORE felix has a tail
Describe deductive arguments The premises support the conclusion. If the premises are true it guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Go from general to specific. Don't tell us anything new about the world.
describe inductive arguments. the premises provide reasons which support the probable truth of the conclusion. Premises only intended to be so true that if its true the conclusion is unlikely to be false. go from specific to general. try to tell us something new about the world
Describe the difference between a strong and weak argument. strong= it is highly likely/a stronger probability of the conclusion being true weak= less likely/a weaker probability of the conclusion being true.
what are arguments from analogy? comparing two things which are alike in some ways meaning we assume they will be similar in other ways.
Describe the difference between an argument being cogent and uncogent. cogent= all the premises are true in our world uncogent= it is weak or strong with at least one false premise
describe formal fallacies they are arguments with a mistake in the structure (affirming the consequent/denying the antecedent) they are invalid arguments where the premises do not support the conclusion.
What is circular reasoning? continuing to argue the same points
what is slipper slope? pointing out the downfalls
What is Post Hoc? thinking/saying something has a particular effect.
What is false dilemma? falsely saying that there are only two possible outcomes
What is argument from ignorance? unable to prove something therefore...
what is attacking the person? blaming someone wrongly
what is appeals to consequences? assumptions based on thoughts
what is illegitimate appeals to authority? telling you something you want to believe.
what is a thought experiment? An experiment carried out by philosophers in their heads to come to a conclusion about a topic.
Give an example of a deductive argument P1 All cats have tails P2 Felix is a cat C Felix has a tail
Give an example of an inductive argument. P1 Felix is a cat P2 Felix has a tail C all cats have tails
Describe confirmation bias. People favour information that confirms their preconceptions. People gather evidence/recall information selectively then interpret it in a biased way. May occur over significant issues such as gun control in the USA
Describe Appeals to emotion. This fallacy manipulates people's emotions. It replaces evidence with emotional and persuasive language. It is common in politics and advertising as it carries more force than reason. For example political speeches.
What are the steps to creating an argument diagram? 1. bracket each statement 2. number them 3. label them 4. re writ them in standard form 5. draw the diagram using the numbers
what is modus ponens? agreeing to the first part of the argument = affirming antecedent
what is modus tollens? disagreeing with the second part of the argument = denying the consequent
Put this argument into standard form and decide what type of argument it is. Independent countries are those that have a unique identity. Scotland has a unique identity. Therefore Scotland should be an independent country. P1 Independent countries have a unique identity P2 Scotland has a unique identity C Scotland should be an independent country Deductive
Put this argument into standard form and decide what type of argument it is. Scotland should go it alone- Latvia have been successful, the republic of ireland have been successful- lets do it! P1 Latvia has been successful P2 the republic of ireland has been successful C Scotland could go it alone Inductive
Put the argument into standard form, say whether it is valid or not, and if it is modus ponens or tollens. All politicians are liars. Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling are politicians. Therefore Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling are liars. P1 All politicians are liars P2 Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling are politicians C Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling are liars. Modus Ponens (Affirming the antecedent) Valid
Put the argument into standard form, say whether it is valid or not, and if it is modus ponens or tollens. If Scotland is unique, then it will be able to survive as an independent country. Scotland will not be able to survive as an independent country. Therefore Scotland is not unique. P1 If Scotland is unique then it will survive as an independent country. P2 Scotland will not be able to survive as an independent country C Scotland is not unique Modus tollens Valid
What is the difference between a sound and unsound argument? sound= valid structure and true premises unsound= invalid structure or a false premise or both
Create a argument diagram. The fire will be hot. When i touched the fire last week it was hot and when i touched the fire yesterday it was hot. P1 When i touched the fire last week it was hot. (2) P2 When i touched the fire yesterday it was hot. (3) C The fire will be hot (1) 2 3 1
Create a argument diagram. Trust me on this! All toasters are time-travelling devices. This is a toaster so it is also a time-travelling device! P All toasters are time-travelling devices (1) P This is a toaster (2) C It is also a time travelling device (3) 1 + 2 3
Create a argument diagram. Look, Mary is 102 and is in a comma-there is no way she will be climbing Mount Everest tomorrow! P Mary is 102 (1) P Mary is in a comma (2) HP It is unlikely she will be climbing Mount Everest tomorrow. C There is no way she will be climbing Mount Everest tomorrow (3) 1 2 HP 3
EXAM "An argument and a statement can be understood as the same thing" explain whether you agree or disagree with the above statement, using examples to demonstrate your answer. Disagree. Argument= series of statements leading to a conclusion. Example= Cats have tails, Poppy is a cat, therefore poppy has a tail. Statement=one sentence not leading to ore making a conclusion. example= the sun is shining.
EXAM Explain the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning, with examples. Deductive= if the premises are true it guarantees the truth of the conclusion, goes from general to specific. example = all cats have tails, felix is a cat, therefore felix has a tail inductive= premises support the probable truth of the conclusion, go from specific to general. example= felix is a cat, felix has a tail, therefore all cats have tails.
EXAM Give an example of confirmation bias, clearly explaining how the technique works, making at least two relevant points. two sides of argument given but it is topical resulting in people on both sides becoming biased. Example= americans on either side of gun control, left or right wing views, loyal to that view. often results in smart/reasonable people not thinking logically.
EXAM Explain how the fallacy 'appeals to emotion' works, use an example and make at least two points. see appeals to emotion card for definition example= party leader running for prime minister uses language such as 'we're all in this together' or 'as a country we can' to make public feel like they will be better off.
What terms can be used to describe deductive arguments? true, valid, sound
what terms can be used to describe inductive arguments? true, strong, cogent
EXAM Use an argument diagram to analyse The western front during WW1 involved terrible suffering; huge battles fought at close quarters, basic medical treatment for the wounded, illness and disease spreading like wildfire. 2 p huge battles were fought at close quarters in ww1 3 p there was only basic medical treatment for the wounded 4 p illness and disease spread through the trenches like wildfire 1 c the western front during ww1 involved terrible suffering 2 3 4 1
EXAM use an argument diagram to analyse all battles involve unnwcessary suffering. the ww1 was a series of bloody battles, and so involved unnecessary suffering. 1 p all battles involve unnecessary suffering. 2 p the first world war was a series of bloody battles 3 c so involved unnecessary suffering 1+2 3
EXAM Use an argument diagram to analyse You must do your homework! if you dont you will miss vital aspects of learning. this will result in your failing your exams, and then not getting into your chosen career. Subsequently you will not be able to find suitable work and will end up destitute. 2 p if you dont you will miss vital aspects of learning 3 p this will result in your failing your exams 4 p then not getting into your chosen career. 5 p subsequently you will not be able to find suitable work 6 p you will end up destitute hp 1 c you must do your homework 2 3 4 5 6 1
EXAM analyse using an argument diagram. All a grade students complete their homework on time. Tom is an a grade student. Tom completes his homework on time. 1 c all a grade students complete their homework on time 3 p tom completes his homework on time 2 p tom is an agrade student 2 + 3 1
what do you think about when asked how successful an argument is? fallacies cogency hidden premise? put into standard form
EXAM How successful is this argument? The Maki people of the South are known to be invading our towns! They are corrupting our children and taking our jobs!! Vote for me and i will eradicate this menace! p1 the maki people are known to be invading... p2 they are corrupting... p3 and taking our jobs... c vote for me... appeals to emotion HP
EXAM How successful is this argument? If it's snowing then the streets will be covered with snow. The streets are covered with snow. Therefore it's snowing. p1 if it's snowing... p2 the streets are... c it's snowing... deductive fallacy affirming consequent unsuccessful-logical problem
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