L5 Abnormal Psychology - Depression

Riya Vaidya
Flashcards by Riya Vaidya, updated more than 1 year ago
Riya Vaidya
Created by Riya Vaidya over 6 years ago


Major Depression Bipolar Disorder

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Question Answer
What are the symptoms of depression? A two week period of the following symptoms a 2 week period with 5 or more of:  Depressed mood  Diminished interest in things  No pleasure from things they used to enjoy  Weight increase/decrease  Appetite increase/decrease  Insomnia/hyposomnia  Restlessness/low activity  Fatigue  Feelings of worthlessness  Concentration difficulties  Indecisiveness  Recurrent thoughts of death/suicide
Once someone has been depressed they are likely to have another episode and are also more likely to occur in the future. Depression is co-morbid with, anxiety disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders.
Heritibility If someone in direct family have suffered from depression what is the likeliness of an individual from the family also getting depressed? 2-4 times more likely than an average person. OR 40% heritable.
What is another cause of depression in regards to Neurochemistry? Depletion in serotenalin and adrenaline.
How does the environment cause depression in relation to temprement? Neurottisism being emotionally reactive. A mismatch in family emotions may trigger an episode of depression. Abusive or neglectful environments amy also trigger depression.
How do thinking styles trigger depression? Negative thinking bias.
How does behaviour trigger depression? People who have trouble with social interaction or have trouble with commmunication. Once people become depressed they will become withdrawn this will maintain the depression.
What are the two broad approaches to depression? Psychological CBT IPT Medicine SSRI Tricyclics
What is cognitive behavioural therapy? COnitive part - help monitor their thoughts and test teh accuracy of he negative thoughts that they are having. Behavioural - Engage more with things they enjoy.
Interpersonal therapy. People with depression who have problems with Interpersonal therapy, look at diff relationships with people in their lives and look at the nature relationships and see how those relationships make you feel. New ways of communicating and interacting so they are less of a nuisance.
Tricyclics Second line of intervention, because side effects tend to be uncomfortable.
One way of conceptualising depression is...? Through the idea of a diathesis stress model. Predisposing biological structure that when they interact with a stressful situation it creates depression. Depression can be maintained in their changes of behaviour and being more with-drawn in themselves.
When using medication alone how effective is it? 80% chance of the patient having a relapse.
When you use medication with psychological intervention does depression drop or not improve by much? drops by a lot 20-35% of relapse. You will quite often find these two methods together.
What is the criteria for bipolar 1? Bipolar 1 Disorder Must meet criteria for at least one lifetime manic episode. This episode can be preceded or followed by hypomanic or depressive episodes.
What is the criteria for bipolar 2? Must meet criteria for one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode.
What age is Bipolar 1 most commonly found? Late adolescence or early adulthood.
What age is bipoalr 2 found? Mid 20s.
Central feature of bipolar 1? A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased goal- directed activity or energy, lasting 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).
What are the main factors of a manic episode? 3-4 of the symptoms are present in an individual.
What are the symptoms of a manic episode?  Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.  Decreased need for sleep (e.g. feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).  More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.  Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.
 Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity. Feelings of having authority that you don;t have. Think you are good at thinks but you aren't.
 Decreased need for sleep (e.g. feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).  More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking. pressure to keep talking
 Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing. E.g. talk about how they have all these wonderful ideas but can't express them Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli). - Getting sidetracked from the bigger picture, paying attention to things that don't matter.
Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psycho-motor agitation (i.e., purposeless non-goal-directed activity). Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments). Impulsive in taking part in dangerous activities, risky bussiness ventures etc. Must be sufficiently impaired to cause trouble in occupational, social functioning.
What is A Hypomanic Episode? Less severe than a manic episode. A hypomanic episode is defined in DSM-V as follows: A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, last at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly every day.
What is the criteria for A Hypomanic Episode? To meet criteria for a hypomanic episode, the same minimum three or four symptoms as listed under the manic episode (i.e., inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, etc…) need to have persisted and be present to a significant degree.
High component of heritability more so than with depression somewhat over lap with schizophrenia. Stress plays a major role in bipolar. -
What is the most often used form of medication to treat bipolar and why? Lithium helps people (not all) manage their manic or hyper-manic episodes and also their depressive episodes. Lithium = Mood stableizer.
Other anti-depressants need to be used with a lot of caution. Why? there is a risk that the anti depressant could trigger a manic episode.
How does Psychological interventions work? Bringing about regular routine in someones life. Educating the person with bipolar and the people who they are surrounded by.
How Psychological intervention work continued... Helping them to monitor pattern of mod and what stressful events cause them to start to loose control of their emotions. It is hard to educate someone when they are in a manic state because they don't want to change themselves, they see nothing wrong with their actions. This makes it hard for them to see the bad consequences that can occur from what they are doing. Treatment involves when not in manic state and helping them look back at manic states, helping them identify with the harm they are causing to themselves and other people, helps them manage their manic episodes by maintaining regular routines.
People with bipolar disorder are at a heightened risk of suicide why? Because of the changes between feeling depressed and mania or hyper-mania. May have thoughts of ending their lives but not having the motivation to actually do it. When their manic episodes start to come along /build up this can mean that they will start to get the motivation and energy to fulfill these suicidal thoughts. (Reason why people would be hospitalised).
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