China History Flash Cards

Kelly Van Orden
Flashcards by Kelly Van Orden, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Kelly Van Orden
Created by Kelly Van Orden about 5 years ago
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Early China

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Question Answer
-Mao Zedong and Propaganda • Mao Zedong- leader of the communist party • Died September 6th, 1976
-China after Mao Zedong • 1970s- Zhou Enlai- Premier of China (since 1949) • Zhou Enlai wanted to open trade with the west -President Richard Nixon met with Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong in China in 1972 to discuss trade • Gang of Four tried to take over→ imprisoned • Deng Xiaoping took over: four modernizations
-Tiananmen Square • June 3-4, 1989 • Located in Beijing • Student protest • The government cracked down on pro-democracy movement • Thousands of students were wounded and/or killed • Chinese government arrested, tortured, and/or executed student leaders • Chinese government remains strong in communism • Influenced other world events, such as the fall of the Berlin Wall
-Socialist China and Mao’s Policies • Mao Zedong was influenced by Karl Marx • Mao believed the peasants would rise up and want socialism
-Japanese Invasion of China • Japan invaded heartland of China in 1937 -Shanghai: November 8th -Nanjing: December 1937 • “The Rape of Nanjing” -300,000 people tortured, raped, and killed
Foreign Affairs • China allied with North Korea in the Korean War (1950-1953) -sent 300,000 soldiers • China received economic support from the Soviet Union (1950-1953) -helped build infrastructure -roads, canals, bridges
-Long March • 1934-1935 • Communists forced to escape from Nationalists • Ruijin to Shaanxi • 6,000 mile journey through swampland, mountains, and freezing climates • 100,000 communists started journey; only 7,000 survived • Symbol of hardship • Leader= Mao Zedong
-Chinese Civil War • 1930-1938, 1946-1949 • Japan invaded Manchuria in September 1931 • Japan invaded heartland of China in 1937 -Shanghai: November 8th -Nanjing: December 1937 • “The Rape of Nanjing” -300,000 people tortured, raped, and killed World War II: 1939-1945 • The Communists and Nationalists put the Chinese Civil War on hold and united in order to fight the outsiders (Japanese) • Communists ruled in the north • Nationalists ruled in the south After World War II • Chinese Civil War resumed -Foreign support -USA supported nationalists -Soviet Union supported communists • Peasants supported Communists • Communists won due to overwhelming support of peasants • In 1949, Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan
-Cultural Revolution • 1966-1976 • The Red Guard: read the “Little Red Book” • Renewed “redness vs. expertise” -Conflict between Marxist ideals and technical knowledge Effects: • Mao reclaimed himself leader of China • Communism became stronger • Failed: schools and factories closed -Mass chaos -Deep wounds: people were tortured and killed
-Mao Zedong • October 1949: proclaimed: “The People’s Republic of China” • Died September 6th, 1976
-Manchuria • Invaded by Japan in September 1931
-Red Guard • Students who supported Mao Zedong -Read the “Little Red Book” • Renewed “redness vs. expertise” -conflict between Marxist ideals and technical knowledge
Little Red Book • Read by the red guard
-Rape of Nanjing -300,000 people tortured, raped, and killed
Great Leap Forward • 1958-1963 • Communes • Mao wanted to increase steal output= failed • Great Leap Forward→ failed→ no incentive to work hard (government profited everything)
Communism • Mao Zedong was influenced by Karl Marx • Mao believed the peasants would rise up and want socialism
-Propaganda • Spread of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause
-Hong Kong • Transferred back to China on July 1st, 1997 • Former British colony • China promises economic and political liberties for 50 years
-Macau • Transferred back to China on December 20th, 1999 • Formerly Portuguese colony
Totalitarian State • Government where every aspect of citizens’ lives are controlled through a single-party dictatorship
Jiang Jieshi • (formerly known as Chiang Kai-Shek) leader of the Kuomintang and China- began executing communists
-Gang of Four • Jiang Qing (Mao’s widow) and three associates; radical faction that tried to replace Mao after his death • These people were held responsible for the cultural revolution (failure) • Imprisoned
-Karl Marx • Wrote “The Communist Manifesto” with Frederick Engels
-Collective Farming • Farming operated and managed under government direction • Agrarian reform law of 1950
-People’s Republic of China • October 1949: proclaimed: “The People’s Republic of China”
Zhou Enlai • 1970s- premier of China (since 1949) • Wanted to open trade with the west • Met with Pres. Richard Nixon and Mao Zedong in 1972 to discuss trade • Died January 8th, 1976
Commune • Collective farms where many people lived and worked together
-Deng Xiaoping • 1976-1997 • New leader • Four modernizations • Used realistic and capitalistic policies • “Black cat, white cat, who cares as long as it catches mice.” • Economic growth was most important
-Four Modernizations • Modernize economy • Expand industry • Develop science and technology • Improve defense forces
-Fifth Modernization • Controversial poster in 1978 calling for the government to add democracy to the four modernizations • Wei Jingsheng (political activist)
-Richard Nixon • Met with Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong in China in 1972 • Discussed trade -diplomatic relations
-Jiang Zemin • 1993-2003 • Skilled, flexible, and practical • No military experience
Hu Jintao • 2003-2013 • Supports market economy • Meetings with president George Bush • Meetings with president Barack Obama • Beijing hosted the 2008 summer olympics
-Charter ‘08 • Controversial human rights document in China • Written by Chinese intellectuals and human rights people • Lu Xiaobo, one of the authors, is in jail • Won Nobel peace prize in 2010
-One-Child Policy • Deng Xiaoping started policy in 1979 • Only applies to urban settings • Estimates: 300 million fewer births in the last 20 years • In rural areas, if 1st child is a girl, then 2nd child is allowed • Policy leads to forced abortions and sterilizations • Violators face hefty fines, seizure of property, and/or loss of jobs • Policy worsens aging crisis- less worker to support older people
-Economy • China had double-digit growth from 2004-2011 • 2nd largest economy in the world • Economy slowed in 2012
-Cheap Labor • China was providing cheap labor to the world- this is changing though • Approximately 8 out of 10 things in the world are made in China • Cambodia, India, and Vietnam even cheaper labor
-Pollution • China has poor air quality due to the many factories and coal production • China produces and uses the most coal in the world
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