Perception

Alexandra Mouhsi
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Diploma/Certificado de qualificação profissional de nivel 3 DD303 Flashcards on Perception, created by Alexandra Mouhsi on 08/11/2013.

101
4
0
Tags
Alexandra Mouhsi
Created by Alexandra Mouhsi almost 6 years ago
Recognition
phoenixisis
Social Perception Terms
stewart.caroline
Phonological Loop model (Working Memory)
phoenixisis
English Language
livbennett
How the European Union Works
Sarah Egan
Epistemology - Perception
penguincej
DD303 Intelligence
Ken Adams
DD303 Language Processing
Ken Adams
DD303 Recognition
Ken Adams
DD303 Working Memory
Ken Adams
Question Answer
Gestalt approach 'The whole is greater than its parts' It focuses on the organisation of the elements of an image rather than the elements themselves. Perceptual organisation includes: -Closure -Good continuation -Proximity -Similarity Similarity seems to be stronger than proximity The stimuli used by Gestalt researchers tended to be quite simple 2Dgeometric patterns
Law of Pragnanz Koffka: 'of several geometrically possible organizations that one will actually occur which possesses the best, simplest and most stable shape'
Gibson's Theory of Perception Gibson developed an ecological approach to perception;Interaction with the environment is the key aspect of this theory: action is seen as the 'goal' of perception. The emphasis is on the way in which real objects and surfaces structure Invariant information (such as texture gradient) could be 'picked up' from the optic array to provide cues to the position, orientation and shape of surfaces. Invariant information also revealed by motion which could produce flow patterns in the optic array.The importance of real surfaces and motion suggest that perception could not be studied by using artificial stimuli in a lab setting. Believed cognitive analysis is not necessary but that objects could 'afford' their use directly. Bottom-up theory.
Marr's Theory of Vision Based on bottom-up processing of information using a computational model which simulated the human visual system Perception composed of a series of stages, each stage generating an increasingly sophisticated description: Grey level-Primal sketch-2 1/2 D sketch- 3D sketch. end stage of perceptual process as object recognition rather than action. Criticisms: based on hypothetical assumptions, not always ecological valid.Does not account for cognitive processes involved with perception. Cannot be adequately reconciled with the separation of visual pathways into action (dorsal stream) and object recognition (ventral stream)
Dorsal and Ventral streams Info from primary visual cortex follows one of two path ways.. Norman: dual process approach. Distinguishes the two pathways and argues that visual processing can be both for action and recognition. Ventral Pathway: 'What' ( involved with perception for recognition , can be linked with Marr's theory and constructivist approach) Dorsal Pathway: 'Where' ( involved with perception for action, can be linked with Gibson's theory) Two streams are interconnected, not independent.
Constructivist approach of perception The way you perceive a stimulus depends on previous knowledge-> top-down processing. Sensory data are often incomplete thus description need previous knowledge to be constructed. Gregory: people generate perceptual hypotheses based on stored knowledge and accept the one that fits best