Animation History

Angelina Sieler
Flashcards by Angelina Sieler, updated more than 1 year ago
Angelina Sieler
Created by Angelina Sieler over 1 year ago


The history of animation

Resource summary

Question Answer
What was this man's contribution to animation? 220px Optic Projection Fig 411 (image/jpeg) His name is Eadweard Muybridge. He was photographer and his studies in 1872 of breaking down a horse's movement still inspire people today
When was the first photograph taken? In 1826
What was invented in 1888? The first box camera
What is the name of this invention and when was it created and by whom? Zoopraxiscope (binary/octet-stream) It is named the "Zoopraxiscope" and it was made in 1879 by Eadweard Muybridge
What is the name of T. Edinson's invention? It is named the "Kinetograph"
Who is this man and his contributions to animation? 170px George Melies (image/jpeg) His name is Georges Méliès, a French filmmaker who made "A trip to the moon" (1902) and "The man with the rubber head" He integrated new techniques into filmmaking, such as split screen, matte painting and superimposition, as well as making a coherent story trough camera movement, shots and narration.
Who was Émile Cohl? Caricaturist & Artist, produced "Fantasmagorie" in 1908
Who made the movie "Fantasmagorie"? Émile Cohl, in 1908
Who made the movie "The execution of Mary Stuart" and when was it released? Thomas Edinson, 1895
Which was one of the first animated advertisements and who was it made by? It was made by Arthur Melbourne Cooper and it is called "Dreams of Toyland"
What is the "sound-on-film" technique and where was it used? Sound is recorded onto film and it was used in "My old Kentucky home"
What did Willis o' Brian specify in? Visual sfx and sculptures - He used stop-motion in his dinosaur movie "The dinosaur and the missing link" (1915)
Who made the short "Humerous phases of funny faces" and when? It was made by cartoonist James Stuart Blackton in 1906
Which was the first animated character and who made them? Gertie the dinosaur was made by Winsor McCay in 1914
What movies did Winsor McCay produce? He made "How a mosquito operates"(1912), "Gertie the Dinosaur"(1914) and "The sinking of the Lusitania" (1915)
Name some pioneers of pre-war animation and filmmaking Winsor McCay, Émile Cohl, Georges Méliés,...
Name an important business person of early animation John Rudolph Bray, specialized in industrial animation
What invention in 1914 improved the quality of animation? The PegBar from Raoul Barré allowed to have characters seperate from the Background
Who is the creator of "The enchanted drawing" and when was it made? It was made by James Stuart Blackton in 1900
What could be considered the first 2D animation and who was it from? One of the first hand-drawn animations was "Humerous phases of funny Faces" (1906) by James Blackton
Which 2D animated short was published after James Blackton's short? "Fantasmagorie" by Émile Cohl
Who invented cell animation and when? Earl Hurd, 1914
Which was the first procedure to create colored movies? The kinemacolor, 1906, with red and green filters
Which movie of Winsor McCay premiered in 1918? The sinking of the Lusitania
What is this short's title, producer and year? V Yh Us Py B4 Uc9ab Fi5nc Krktgr5p (binary/octet-stream) "Fantasmagorie", Émile Cohl, 1908
What were the Fleischer brother's jobs? Dave: Film editor Max: Illustrator
What is rotoscoping, when was it patented and by whom? It's a technique where animation is drawn over live-action film, it was patented by the Fleischer Brothers in 1915
In which time-period did sound start to appear in animation? 1920's
Which was the first synchronised animated short to feature sound? "My old Kentucky home", 1926 by Fleischer Studios
When was "sound-on-film" made? 1919
When was "sound-on-disc" made? 1926, the "Vitaphone" (Cutting frames meant desynchronized music)
Which short did Fleischer Studio's produce in 1933? "Popeye the sailor"
What animation system did the Fleischer's invent/use regularly? Rotation to create perspective Unbenannt (binary/octet-stream)
Which was the "golden age of animation"? 1928 - 1972 (TV-era)
What happened to Fleischer Studios in 1941? It was brought by Paramount and went bancrupt 1942
When was Felix the Cat made and what did he contribute? 1919 by Fleischer Studios - Not since Gertie has a character gotten so much personality, was very complex, had humerous details and reappeared over and over again
What was "experimental animation"? Artists started to question traditions of art, they explored forms, experimented with time and space, influenced by Dadaism and Abstractism
What were the inspirations for "experimental animation"? Wassily Kadinsky's idea of using visual patterns to visualize music + rythm and Leopold Survage's "Colored Rythm" 1913
Who was Viking Eggeling? Part of "Novembergruppe", Dadaism & Bauhaus - connected diffrent art forms (architecture,...) and made "Diagonal Symphony" (1924)
Which short is presented here, from which year and by whom? S (binary/octet-stream) Viking Eggeling's "Diagonal Symphony" from 1924
Who was Hans Richter? Animator, art director, part of "Novembergruppe" - opposed commercial filmmaking, used photographic work in later films
Which short is presented here, from which year and by whom? Download (binary/octet-stream) Hans Richter's "Rythm 21", 1921 Movement of square shapes and diagonal lines
Who was "Walter Ruttmann"? Graphic designer, painted on glass sheets and cut outs, made "Lichtspiel Opus" in 1921, resorted to Nazi Propaganda films in war times
Which short is presented here, from which year and by whom? Download (1) (binary/octet-stream) Hans Richter's "Filmstudie", 1926 Photographic work + Geometric shapes
Which short is presented here, from which year and by whom? Hqdefault (binary/octet-stream) Walter Ruttmann's "Lichtspiel Opus 1", 1921 Soft organic shapes with hard shapes, moving with rhythm
Who was Oskar Fischinger? Animator, combined music & images, made first "music videos" , some commercial art, got invited by paramount and disney, but they didn't appreciate abstract art Used cell - layering to make abstract compositions & create harmony
Who was "Lotte Reiniger"? One of first female animators in industry, silhouette puppetry & stop motion, used multiplane camera, parallax scrolling (layers of BG), drew her own characters, both avantgarde and commercial filmmaking
Which was the first animated frature film? "The adventures of Prince Achmed" (1926)
Who were Claire Parker & Alexandre Alexeieff? Modern artist, animated with "Pinscreen", moved to advertising to fund their projects
What was Claire Parker's & Alexandre Alexeieff's masterpiece? "The Nose", 1963
Who made "The Nose" and when? Claire Parker & Alexandre Alexeieff, 1963
Who was "Mary Ellen Bute"? Download (2) (binary/octet-stream) Worked with electronic devices, project light onto film stock, objects put on film stock, connected light, movement & abstract shapes (1934-1953)
Who was "Norman McLaren"? Studied material design, influenced by Fischinger, human actions frame-by-frame, and music/rythm inspired animation (1940-1950)
Who made "The Neighbours" and when? Norman McLaren, 1963
Who made "Dots" and when? Norman McLaren, 1940
Who was Len Lye? Used direct animation technique on either black or blue film stock (painting, scratching) , combined life action & animation
Who made "Rainbow Dance" and when? Len Lye, 1936 (Live Action & drawing on stock/manipulating)
Who was Walt Disney? Pursued career in animation, first studio went bankrupt but later revolutionized animation industry
What was the name of Disney's animation studio? Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, 1923
What was Disney's first cartoon character? Oswalt the Lucky Rabbit
Why did Disney create Mickey Mouse and when? Disney lost his rights to the character to the distributor and created a new one in 1928
Which was the first Mickey mouse shot? "Plane Crazy", 1928
Which was the first Mickey Mouse short to feature sound? "Steamboat Willie", 1928
What were the "Silly Symphony" series? Shorts animated to popular music with a bit of storytelling ("Skeleton Dance", 1929)
Which color systems did Disney use? "Technicolor 2 strip" (1922), "Technicolor 3 strip" (1932) - banned competitors from using it
Which was Disney's first colored animation? "Flowers and Trees", 1932
When was storyboarding introduced? In "The three little Pigs", 1933 - together with a chain-produced workflow & training for staff
Which was Disney's first animated feature film? "Snow White", 1937
What type of camera did Disney introduce for Snow White? The multiplane camera, 1937 - made realistic 3D effect trough parallax
What movies did Disney release in the 40's? Pinoccio, Dubo, Bambi, Fantasia
What movies did Disney release in the 50's? Cindarella, Peter Pan
Which was Disney's first live action show? "One hour in Wonderland", 1950
Why is Disney criticized to this day? Produced films for merchandise (Mickey Mouse club), very disorted gender representation
When did the golden era of animation end and why? When TV and home entertainment dominated the media and people went rarely to theatres
What other animation companies existed? Warner Brothers, Hanna-Barbera, UPA
What company did Chuck Jones belong to? Warner Bros.
What did Warner Brothers accoplish? Among first to release sound,made first shot in 1930, Bugs Bunny in "A Wild Hare" (1940),Looney Tunes - were competitors for Disney
Who was Chuck Jones? Creator of "Road Runner", got more stylized in "What's opera doc?", 1957, and made experimental animation "The dot and the line" in 1965
What was Hanna-Barbera? Studio formed by Willian Hanna and Joseph Barbera, created Tom and Jerry in 1940, as well as Flintstones, Scooby Doo & Jogi Bears (Saturday morning Cartoons) - used "limited animation"
What defines "limited animation" Often found in cartoons: Reusing key poses, suggestion of action, recaps of episodes, smears & motion blur, replacing animation with camera techniques, only moving mouth of characters, walk cycles Spread in the 1960's
What was UPA? Studio that used stylized, simplistic animation without lowering quality (modern art/ avantgarde), encouraged to experiment, used geometrical shapes, unshaded colors, not much squash & stretch, more focus on a character's psychology (more mature)
"What cartoons did UPA make"? "Gerald McBoing-boing" , 1950 (very stylized, reduced background, anti-realist)
Who was John Hubley? Founder of UPA,made at least 1 independant shor per year, political approaches & important themes were put into stories (cold war in "The Hole")
What shorts did John Hubley make? "Moonbird", 1959, "The Hole", 1962
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