IB Chemistry - Key definitions

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Flashcards by rbarboza, updated more than 1 year ago
rbarboza
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Flashcards on IB Chemistry - Key definitions, created by rbarboza on 11/27/2014.

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Question Answer
Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) Average mass of all existing isotopes of an element compared to one atom of carbon-12
Mass Number (A) Number of protons + Number of neutrons *biggest number*
Isotopes Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) but different mass number (number of neutrons)
Electronegativity Tendency of an element to attract a pair of electrons when covalently bonded
First Ionization Energy Energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms X -> X+ + e-
Atomic Number (Z) Number of protons; In a neutral atom, the number of electrons and protons is the same *never changes*
Relative Molecular Mass (Mr) Sum of all the relative atomic masses of all atoms present in a molecule Example: Water = (2x1.01)+(1x16.01)=18.02
Exothermic Reaction Chemical reactions which result in a transfer of heat energy from the system to the surroundings (heat given out) Enthalpy change is negative Examples: Combustion and neutralization
Endothermic Reaction Chemical reactions which result in an energy tranfer from the surroundings to the system Enthalphy change is positive
Standard Enthalpy Change of Reaction (ΔH⊖) Heat transferred during a reaction
Average Bond Enthalpy Energy needed to break one mole of bonds in gaseous molecule under standard conditions
Rate of Reaction Measure of the amount of reactants being converted into products per unit time
Activation Energy (Ea) Minimum value of kinetic energy which particles must have before they are able to react
Brønsted-Lowry Acid Proton (H+) donour
Brønsted-Lowry Base Proton (H+) acceptor
Lewis Acid Electron pair acceptor
Lewis Base Electron pair donour
Oxidation Loss of electrons during a reaction; Increase in oxidation number
Reduction Gain of electrons during a reaction; Decrease in oxidation number
Oxidizing Agent Substance that causes oxidation; Substance which is reduced
Reducing Agent Substance that causes reduction; Substance which is oxidized
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