AQA Chemistry Organic chemistry

Megan Vann
Flashcards by Megan Vann, updated more than 1 year ago
Megan Vann
Created by Megan Vann over 6 years ago
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A Level AS AQA Chemistry (Unit 1) Flashcards on AQA Chemistry Organic chemistry, created by Megan Vann on 11/28/2014.

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Question Answer
What is an emperical formula? Gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
what is molecular fomula? gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in one molecule.
What is a displayed formula? shows all the atoms and bonds present in a molecule.
what is a structural formula? shows the unique arrangement of atoms in a molecule in a simplified form, without showing all the bonds.
What is a functional group? an atom or a group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, causes them to have similar properties
What is a homologous series? a family of molecules which all contain the same functional group but an increasing number of carbon atoms.
State the formula for the alkyl group: 1) Methyl 2) Ethyl 3) Propyl 4) Butyl 5) Pentyl 6) Hexyl 1)CH3 2)C2H5 3)C3H7 4)C4H9 5)C5H11 6)C6H13
What is meant by the term structural isomerism? has the same molecular formula but a different structural formula.
What is meant by the term chain isomerism? isomers have the same molecular formula but the carbon skeleton Is arranged in a different way.
What is meant by the term position isomerism? Isomers have the same molecular formula and carbon skeleton is arranged in the same way by functional group occurs in a different position.
What is meant by the term functional group isomerism? Isomers have the same molecular formula but different functional groups.
What are saturated hydro-carbons called? Alkanes.
What does petroleum mainly consist of? Alkane hydro-carbons.
What is a fraction? A mixture of compounds with a narrow range of boiling points.
Why is it said that a fractional tower has a negative temperature gradient? it is hot at the bottom and cool at the top.
What is broken in alkanes during cracking? The C-C bonds.
Why do larger hydrocarbons have higher boiling points? have more van der waals forces therefore require more energy to break the intermolecular bonds.
Under what conditions does thermal cracking take place? 1) High pressure 2) High temp
Under what conditions does catalytic cracking take place? 1) slight pressure 2) high temp 3) zeolite catalyst
What types of products does thermal cracking make? alkenes (+ some short chain alkanes and hydrogen)
What types of products does catalytic cracking make? 1) Branched chain alkanes 2) aromatic hydrocarbons 3) cycloalkanes
what can the products of thermal cracking be used as? makes polymers (plastics)
what can the products of catalytic cracking be used as? to make motor fuel.
What are the economic reasons for cracking? To turn less useful hydrocarbons into more useful ones that can be sold to make money. We also need cracking to reach the global demand.
what are the products of incomplete combustion? CO (or C) and H20
what are the products of complete combustion? CO2 + H20
What are the different pollutants that an internal combustion engine produces? NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons.
What does the combustion of hydrocarbons containing sulphur lead to? sulphur dioxide ---> acid rain can be removed from flue gasses using calcium oxide.
Name 3 greenhouse gasses. Carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour.
What do un burnt hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen contribute to? Smog.
What catalysts are used in catalytic converters? and why? Platinum, Rhodium or Palladium. They provide a large surface area, increasing the rate of reaction of converting harmful substances into less harmful ones.
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