PHIL-1301 Unit #1 Study Deck!

Holly Berry
Flashcards by Holly Berry, updated more than 1 year ago
Holly Berry
Created by Holly Berry about 7 years ago


PHIL-1301 Flashcards on PHIL-1301 Unit #1 Study Deck!, created by Holly Berry on 11/29/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
_____ is the study of the nature of reality. Metaphysics
Plato was a student of _____. Socrates
A(n) _____ is a verbal attempt to get other people to accept a belief or opinion by providing reasons why they should accept it. argument
The view that ultimate reality is composed of material "stuff" is _____. materialism
Aristotle invented the _____ _____ _____ _____, determining how we think about things. Doctrine of the Categories
_____ is the belief that the universe and all that is in it has purpose. Teleology
A(n) _____argument reasons from one statement to another by means of necessary logical reasoning. deductive
An inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, or both is _____. uncogent
A fallacy of _____ is when a general rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover. accident
A _____ is a fallacy in which the conclusion is drawn from an atypical sample. hasty generalization
_____ is when the arguer conceals a premise not readily supportable by the facts. Begging the question
One's _____ is the starting point for one's beliefs, ideas, feelings, biases, etc. point of view
The study of questions concerning knowledge and the meaning of truth is _____. epistemology
Socrates' physical death came as a result of _____. drinking poison hemlock
Heraclitus associated ultimate reality with _____. change
Anaximenes believed the most fundamental "stuff" of the universe is _____. air
_____ proclaimed that water is the most basic "stuff" of the universe. Thales
_____ said "the unexamined life is not worth living." Socrates
Plato pursued scientific knowledge through original research at the _____. academy
(T or F) The straw man fallacy is when the arguer draws a conclusion different from that supported by the premises. False: distorts
The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek words "philo" and "sophia" meaning _____ _____ _____. love of wisdom
The fallacy of _____ _____ is when a conclusion depends on an unlikely chain reaction. slippery slope
Hobbes' _____ is a type of materialism, limiting the self simply to the body. reductionalism
(T or F) In figuring out whether arguments are acceptable, one need only know that the conclusion is true. False: facts also true
Both the _____ and _____ _____ agree that the enduring self is an illusion. Buddha; David Hume
(T or F) An argument can be invalid and yet can still be sound. False: It is automatically unsound.
"To know the good is to do the _____" equates to the knowledge with _____. good; virtue
Philosophy can be generally defined as "getting to the _____ of _____." bottom; things
The _____ _____ fallacy is when the arguer leads the listener off track. red herring
_____ believed that change is an illusion and that the universe is constant. Parmenides
Socrates was known in Athens as the "_____" for his consistent irritating. Gadfly
(T or F) Sophists practiced objectivism and used dialectic in ancient Athens. False: they used cynicism and relativism.
The _____ _____ fallacy is when the arguer attacks his/her opponent in a way that is unrelated to the actual argument. ad hominem
Socrates believed _____ _____ is found in recognizing one's own ignorance. true wisdom
In reasoning, we draw _____ based on premises or _____. conclusions; support/evidence
While deductive arguments show their conclusions to be _____ true, inductive arguments show their conclusions to be _____ true. necessarily; probably
For Plato, conflicts within human nature often arise between emotions (spirit) on the one hand, and _____ on the other hand. appetite
For Plato, the soul, which is pure, rules over the _____, which is less pure. body
"Have you stopped cheating on exams?" is an example of what kind of fallacy? complex questioning
_____ is the science that evaluates arguments. Logic
In Aristotle's categories, _____ addresses the question "what is it?" substance
_____ fallacies can be detected through analysis of the content of the argument. Informal
The reasoning process expressed by an argument is _____ inference
An appeal to _____ is when the arguer threatens the listener. force
A(n) _____ argument is a strong inductive argument that has all true premises. cogent
A valid deductive argument that has an untrue premise is a(n) _____ argument. unsound
_____ asserted that numbers are fundamental "stuff" of the universe. Pythagoras
"Murder is morally wrong. This being the case, it follows that abortion is morally wrong" is an example of the fallacy of _____ _____ _____. begging the question
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