OCR Chemistry - Atoms, Bonds and Groups (Definitions)

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A Levels Chemistry (Atoms, Bonds and Groups) Flashcards on OCR Chemistry - Atoms, Bonds and Groups (Definitions), created by GwynsM on 21/02/2013.

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Question Answer
Acid An acid is a proton donor.
Base A base is a H+ acceptor.
Alkali An alkali is a soluble base. An alkali is a type of base that dissolves in water forming OH- ions.
Salt A salt is any compound formed from an acis when H+ ions from the acid have been replaced by metal ions or by another positive ion.
Hydrated Crystals Refers to the crystalline compound containing water molecules.
Anhydrous Crystals Substance that contains no water molecules.
Water of Crystallisation Water molecules within a crystalline structure.
Oxidation Loss of electrons
Reduction Gain of electrons
Oxidation Numbers A measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
Redox Reaction Where both oxidation and reduction occur in the same reaction.
Reducing Agent A reagent that reduces another species.
Oxidising Agent A reagent that will oxidise another agent.
Mass Number The number of particles (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus.
Isotope Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Relative Atomic Mass The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared to 1/12 of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative Isotopic Mass The mass of an atom of an isotope of an element compared to 1/12 of an atom of carbon-12.
First Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
Second Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove one electron from one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
Ionic Bonding Electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Covalent Bond A shared pair of electrons.
Co-ordinate Bond (Dative covalent bone) Covalent bond where both shared electrons are donated by 1 atom.
Metallic Bonding Electrostatic attraction between a positive ion and a delocalised electron.
Electronegativity The measure of the attraction a bonded atom has for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
Hydrogen Bond A strong dipole-dipole attraction between a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom and an electron defficent hydrogen on another molecule.
Thermal Decomposition The splitting up of a compound using heat.
Displacement (Reaction) Where a more reactive halogen replaces a less reactive halide.
Intermolecular Forces Attractions between one molecule and a neighbouring molecule.
Disproportionation When a single element is simultaneously oxidised and reduced.
Periodicity Trends and patterns of chemical and physical properties of elements.