Biology Topic 5 Flashcards

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J000D97
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A2 level Biology Flashcards on Biology Topic 5 Flashcards, created by J000D97 on 01/12/2015.

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Define: Biosphere The part of the earth + its atm that is inhabited by living organisms
Define: Population A group of organisms of the same species, living and breeding together in a habitat.
Define: Habitat The place where an organism lives.
Define: Community All the pops. of different species or orgs. living in a habitat at one time.
What piece of equipment could you use for random sampling of plants? A quadrat
How many measurements should you take during an investigation? Enough to become statistically significant or until the running mean stabilises.
List 2 systematic sampling methods Line transect & Interrupted belt transect.
What type of information do you get from a line transect? And are quadrats involved? What species are present, and no.
What can light intensity be a measure of? Primary productivity
List the 6 biotic factors Competition Predation Parasitism + Disease Mutualism Pollinators Anthropogenic factors
List the 8 abiotic factors Solar energy input Climate (rain, wind, temp.) Topography (altitude, slope) Oxygen availability Pollution Edaphic (pH, texture, mineral availability) Catastrophes Water currents and wave action
Define a niche The role of an organism in a community.
Define: Succession A process by which communities of animals and plants colonise an area and then over time replace each other, usually by more varied communities.
What is a sere? A name for all the stages of succession.
What are seral stages? Each different community in a process of succession.
What can cause secondary succession to occur? Fires, floods, or human disturbances.
What is the climatic climax community in Britain? Deciduous broad-leaved woodland
Define: Deflected succession A community remaining stable only due to human action preventing succession from running its course.
Define: Global warming potential A measure of the greenhouse effect caused by a certain gas compared to the same amount of \(CO_2\) over a given time.
List 4 sources of methane Anaerobic decay of organic materials in waterlogged conditions. Digestion of ruminant herbivores. Decay of domestic waste in landfills. Decomposition of animal waste. Rice fields.
List 5 areas used as evidence of global warming Temperature records Frozen Isotopes Peat bogs Dendrochronology \(CO_2\) levels
What is peat? An accumulation of partially decayed organic matter - mainly dead plants.
What can be retrieved from peat bogs as evidence for global warming and what can you do with them? Pollen grains, construct pollen diagram showing each species' abundance in the layer the samples were taken from.
Why are pollen grains from peat bogs still intact? They have a tough outer layer resistant to decay.
Why are peat bogs, specifically, so useful? When plant material dies it would normally decay but the anaerobic, acidic conditions inside peat bogs slows the decay rate.
Define: Dendrochronology The dating of past events using tree ring growth.
Why are tree rings produced? During spring when there is plenty of moisture trees grow more quickly and new xylem vessels are wider. During summer growth is slower and vessels are narrower. This produces a contrast of widths of vessels produced at the end of each year which gives the appearance of rings which can be counted.
Why do you have to be wary of climate predictions? Political/Economic viewpoints and funding cause bias of conclusions from data. Extrapolation of data assumes current trends continue which isn't always the case. They don't always include all the factors which could affect climate.
List 3 effects of global warming Rising temperature Changing rainfall patterns Seasonal cycle changes
What is the equation for PS? 17173265-5505-4311-80f3-6c9fbc9ef8ae.jpg (image/jpg)
Give the equation for photophosphorylation ADP + Pi --> ATP bc628f71-3322-4484-a4fc-0a101c9d1e8f.JPG (image/JPG)
What are the products of the light-dependent PS reactions? Waste oxygen, ATP and NADPH.
Which photosystem is involved in cyclic L-D PS? PSI
Which enzyme catalyses the break down of ATP? ATPase
Where do the L-D reactions of PS take place? Thylakoids
Where do the light in-dep reacts of PS take place? In the stroma
Where does the energy for photo phosphorylation come from? Chemiosmosis - \(H^+\) ions moving through ATPsynthase proton pore having been pumped in using energy from ETC.
What are the products of the L-in dep. reacts of PS? GALP - glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate Which is converted into glucose.
List the 6 components of a chloroplast Stroma Thylakoid (membrane & space) Starch grain Granum (stack of thylakoid) Smooth inner and outer membrane DNA loop
NPP=_________+__________ GPP - Respiration
What is GPP? Rate at which energy is incorporated and organic matter synthesised in producers.
What is NPP? Rate organic matter is stored by plants / used for biomass production.
What are autotrophs? Producers
What are heterotrophs? Consumers
What are primary consumers also known as? Herbivores
Define: Trophic level An org's position in the food chain.
What are detrivores? Primary consumers that feed on dead organic matter called detritus.
What are decomposers? Species of bacteria and fungi that feed on dead remains of organisms and animal faeces.
What is the PS efficiency formula? GPP/Amount of light energy striking the plant x100
In what ways is energy lost between trophic levels? Not all of the food being eaten. Faeces and urine. Respiration.
% energy transfer = ..... Energy passed on to next level -------------------------------------------- Energy of prior level
Define: Carbon sink Reservoir of carbon locked up in organic or inorganic compounds.
List 4 sources of \(CO_2\) Burning fossil fuels. Loss of a carbon sink. Melting ice. Volcanic activity.
What are 2 suggested ways of reducing \(CO_2\)? Biofuels & Reforestation
Define: evolution A change on allele frequency coming about through gene mutation and natural selection.
What are the 2 types of speciation? Pre-zygotic & Post zygotic
List the 5 types of pre-zygotic speciation Habitat Isolation Temporal Isolation Mechanical Behavioural Gametic Isolation
What are the 3 types of post zygotic isolation? Low hybrid zygote rigour Low hybrid adult viability Hybrid infertility
Define: Allele frequency The proportion of one allele with in a gene pool or population.
Define: gene pool All the alleles from all the genes found in a particular population
4 ways new alleles can be creted Random mutation Radiation Change in base sequence (during) Cell division or replication
Define: genetic diversity The variety of different alleles of a particular gene present in a gene pool
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