Human Resource Development

Flashcards by jkim05, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jkim05 about 6 years ago


PHR (Human Resource Development) Flashcards on Human Resource Development, created by jkim05 on 01/20/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is a Work-for-Hire exception to the Copyright Act? When an employer paid for work or creative work was commissioned.
What are the 3 types of patents? 1.) Design 2.) Utility 3.) Plant
What is Organization Development? Systematic method of examining an organizations technology, processes, structure, HR, and developing new methods to improve.
What is an OD Intervention? Strategy to enact change.
What is the Change Process Theory? Kurt Lewin defined 3 stages: 1.) Unfreezing - motivation for change 2.) Moving - resistance managed / communication 3.) Refreezing - change becomes norm
What are the 8 steps for successful change? 1.) Prepare 2.) Communicate 3.) Develop 4.) Executive Sponsor 5.) Motivate Supervisors 6.) Recruit Unofficial Leaders 7.) Implement 8.) Evaluate
Name 6 methods of Knowledge Management. 1.) Expert register 2.) Best-practice standards 3.) After-action evaluations 4.) Communities of practice 5.) Technology solutions 6.) Knowledge management systems
What are Learning Organizations? Innovative environments in which knowledge is originated, obtained, freely shared.
What is Systems Thinking? Ability of individuals and organizations to recognize patterns and project how change will impact them.
What is Personal Mastery? High level of expertise in individual's chosen field and commitment to lifelong learning.
What is a Mental Model? Deep seated beliefs that color perceptions can affect how individuals see the world.
What is TQM? Total Quality Management Long term intervention requiring all employees to meet customer needs.
Who proposed that quality is defined by the consumer? W. Edwards Deming
Who proposed that quality begins with customer needs and then translated to business language for a mutual benefit? Joseph M. Juran
What 3 quality phases were identified by Juran? 1.) Quality planning 2.) Quality control 3.) Quality improvements
What did Kaora Ishikawa do for quality improvement? Introduced analytical tools. 1.) Check sheet - track # of occurrences 2.) Histogram - chart to identify pattern
What is a Pareto chart? Vilfredo Pareto Chart that purports that 80% of problems are caused by 20% of causes. Pareto chart organizes in descending order.
What is a Cause & Effect diagram? Aka fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram Aids in organizing information during brainstorming
What is a Stratification chart? Aids in identifying possible strategies for correcting problems.
What is a Scatter Chart? Provides relationship between two sets of numbers.
What is a Process Control Chart? Provides a graphical representation of elements that are out of acceptable range by setting parameters above and below range.
What was Philip B. Crosby's approach to quality? Purported 4 absolutes: 1.) Conformance to requirements 2.) Prevention 3.) Performance standards 4.) Measurement
What is Six Sigma? Quality philosophy developed by two engineers at Motorola in the 80s. This methodology is referred to as DMAIC.
What does DMAIC stand for? Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
What are the 5 team levels identified by Six Sigma? 1.) Quality Leader / Manager 2.) Master Black Belt 3.) Process Owner 4.) Black Belt 5.) Green Belt
What is a High Involvement Organization (HIO)? An organization where employees design, take action, and are accountable for work.
What are the 4 elements needed to create an HIO as per Edward E. Lawler III? 1.) Power 2.) Information 3.) Knowledge 4.) Rewards
What is Conflict Resolution? Process of developing strategies for resolving issues and maintaining or rebuilding effective working relationships.
What is Management by Objectives (MBO)? Aligns individuals with organizational goals and measures successful attainment of objectives as well as the quality and or quantity of performance.
What is Emotional Intelligence? EI or EQ How people deal with feelings and how they perceive and interact with others.
What is Talent Management? All activities that seek to attract and retain best candidates.
What are 5 factors that lead to job enrichment? 1.) Skill variety 2.) Task identity 3.) Task significance 4.) Autonomy 5.) Feedback
What is Job Enlargement? When additional responsibilities are added without change in responsibility or skill.
What topics may a Supervisory Training include? - Effective mgmt - Conflict mgmt - Team building - Influence and negotiation - Communication - Time mgmt - Interview skills - Delegation - Planning - Motivation
What is Virtual Coaching? Self paced learning including emails, telephone, videoconferencing, etc.
What is a Management Development program? A program that seeks to upgrade skills for managers who are accountable for others.
What is a Leadership Development program? Program that seeks out employees who show promise as potential leaders.
What is Organizational Level training? Training that encompasses the entire organization, division, or department.
What is Task Level training? Training involving processes performed in a single job category.
What is Individual Level training? Review of performance by individual employees and can be indicated by poor performance reviews or request for assistance by employee.
What is the ADDIE model? Instruction Design: Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation
What are the 6 steps in a Training Needs Assessment model? 1.) Identify goal 2.) Gather/analyze data 3.) Identify performance gap 4.) Identify instructional goals 5.) Propose solutions 6.) Evaluate options, estimate budget/timeline
What are the 4 steps helpful in guiding the Training Design stage? 1.) Compile a task inventory 2.) Identify the target audience 3.) Develop training objectives 4.) Develop course content
What is a Negatively Accelerating Learning Curve? Rapid increases in learning at the beginning that taper off as learner becomes more familiar with process or task.
What is a Positively Accelerating Learning Curve? Slow start in learning that increases as the learner masters different aspects of the process or task.
What is the S-Shaped Learning Curve? Combination of positive and negative learning curves. Begins with slow learning process that accelerates over time and then slows again.
What is the Plateau Learning Curve? Rapid increase in knowledge that levels off after a period of time and no additional progress occurs.
What are 3 types of training materials that can be helpful in the development phase? 1.) Leader guide 2.) Manuals 3.) Handouts
What is a Passive Training Method? Name 3 types. Method in which learner listens to and absorbs information. - Lecture - Presentation - Conference
What is an Active Training Method? Name 5 types. Method in which the learning experience focuses on the learner. - Facilitation - Case study - Simulation - Vestibule - using equipment - Socratic seminar - Q&A
What is an Experiential Training Method? Name 3 types. Method that provides experience in real time situations. - Demonstration - One-on-one - Performance based (PBT)
Name 4 types of program delivery mechanisms. 1.) Classroom 2.) Self-study 3.) Programmed Instruction 4.) Virtual Training (VT)
Name 5 different electronically based training delivery systems? 1.) Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) 2.) Computer based training (CBT) 3.) Distance learning - geographically diverse 4.) Blended learning - multiple methods 5.) Online bulletin boards
What are 3 things to be considered during the implementation phase of training? 1.) Facility 2.) Trainers 3.) Schedule
Name 6 types of seating arrangements. 1.) Theater style 2.) Classroom style 3.) Banquet style 4.) Chevron style 5.) Conference style 6.) U-shaped style
What is Transfer of Training? When training is applied effectively to the job.
What is a Formative Evaluation? Process used in the design phase of training to test/preview content prior to final delivery.
Name 5 strategies used in the Formative Evaluation process. 1.) Needs assessment 2.) Asking people 3.) Analyzing jobs 4.) Pilot test - used after design is developed 5.) Pre-test - measure knowledge prior to design
What was Donald Kirkpatrick's theory of summative training evaluation? He proposed four levels of evaluation for training. 1.) Reaction 2.) Learning 3.) Behavior 4.) Results
What is the Reaction Evaluation Method? Measures the initial reaction of participants. Most commonly by survey at the end of training.
What is the Learning Evaluation Method? Test to measure whether the participants learned the information that was presented.
What is the Pretest/Posttest Comparison? 1.) Group of EEs selected for training 2.) EEs are randomly assigned to 2 groups 3.) An identical pretest is administered 4.) One group receives training 5.) Identical post test is administered to both groups 6.) Results are compared
When is a pretest/posttest method most useful? When an organization wants to isolate the impact of training on productivity.
What is the Behavior Evaluation Method? Method that measures job performance between six weeks and six months after training.
What is the Results Evaluation Method? Method providing feedback most meaningful to the business.
What is Performance Management? Ongoing process of providing feedback for employees about performance to develop them into increasingly productive contributors.
What is Meaningful Feedback? Specific feedback describing the behavior so EE is clear on what is being done well.
What is Corrective Feedback? Feedback that is given privately to avoid embarrassment and allows for commentary and request for more information.
What are 3 factors important to the appraisal process? 1.) The elements included 2.) The timing of reviews 3.) Methods used
What 5 elements should be included for an effective annual review? 1.) Supervisor Assessment 2.) Employee Self-Assessment 3.) Assessment from Others 4.) Goal Setting 5.) Development Goals
What are the advantage of conducting reviews at individual anniversary dates? Fewer reviews to conduct at one time.
What are the disadvantages of employee anniversary date reviews? - when awarding salary increases - when using comparative appraisal methods
What is a Focal Review Period? When all employees are reviewed at the same time.
What are the advantages/disadvantages of a focal review system? Advantage: allocate salary increase, equity grants, bonuses, other rewards Disadvantage: sheer volume
What are the 4 basic categories of performance appraisal methods? 1.) Comparison methods 2.) Rating methods 3.) Narrative methods 4.) Behavioral methods
What are the 3 most common methods of comparison methods? 1.) Ranking - listed in order from highest to lowest 2.) Paired comparison - ees in group compared to one 3.) Forced ranking - aka forced distribution or choice - bell curve - helps alleviate leniency & harshness biases
What are the 2 most common rating methods? 1.) Rating scales - standard rating - 1-5 2.) Checklists - lists of statements with phrases describing performance - check those that apply
What are Narrative Methods of appraisal? Name 3 Require managers to describe EE performance. 1.) Critical incident - make note of success/problems 2.) Essay - short description 3.) Field Review - can be conducted by someone other than supervisor
What is BARS? Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
What is the BARS method? Uses job description to create dimensions that represent most important requirements of the job. Anchor statements create varying levels of performance behaviors.
What is the Inter-Rater Reliability? Process of using more than 1 rater to reduce bias.
What 3 non work specific programs can positively impact the workforce/performance? 1.) Diversity initiatives 2.) Flexible work arrangements 3.) Repatriation of global employees
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