Argument Notes

Kassidy Hetzel
Flashcards by Kassidy Hetzel, updated more than 1 year ago
Kassidy Hetzel
Created by Kassidy Hetzel over 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Argument Notes, created by Kassidy Hetzel on 01/22/2015.

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Question Answer
What are the three types of Persuasion? Ethos Pathos Logos
What is Ethos? An appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker.
What are the four ways an author can appeal to Ethos in an Argument? 1. By establishing common ground with the reader 2. By addressing counterarguments 3. By presenting solutions to the problem. 4. By citing notable persons in the field in question
What is Pathos? Pathos is an appeal to the audience’s emotions.
What are the three strategies for an author to build Pathos in an argument? 1. By using words that are have specific emotional, political, or social connotations. 2. By including images that have clear emotional impact 3. By using shocking facts or statistics.
What is Logos? Logos is is a logical appeal or a strategy in which the writer tries to appeal to the reader’s sense of reason.
What are some possible strategies to build logos in an argument? 1. By using concrete examples, statistics, facts, and other research. 2. By creating a hierarchy of purpose 3. By giving readers a reason to care or showing why the issue is important.
What are the three approaches to argument? Classical Toulmin Rogerian
Who came up with the classical approach to argument? Aristotle
What are the six components of the Classical approach? Introduction State your Case Proposition Refutation Substantiation and Proof Conclusion
In a Classical argument describe the purpose of the introduction. captures attention of audience; urges audience to consider your case
In a Classical argument, what does it mean to state your case? Clarify your issue. Give any necessary background for understanding the issues. Define any important terms of conditions here.
In a Classical argument, what is the purpose of the proposition? State your central proposition or thesis. Present the subtopics or supportive points to forecast your argument for your reader.
In a Classical Argument, what is the purpose of the the refutation? Analyze the opposition's argument and summarize it; refute or address the points; point out faulty reasoning and inappropriate appeals.
In a Classical argument, what is the purpose of Substantiation and Proof? Develop your own case. Use ethos, pathos, and logos appeals to make your case. Use good evidence such as examples.
In a Classical argument, what is the purpose of the conclusion? summarizes your most important points and can include appeals to feelings or values (pathos)
Who came up with the Toulmin Approach to Argument? Stephen Toulmin
What are the basic components of a Toulmin argument? Claim Grounds Warrants Backing Qualifier
In a Toulmin argument, what is a claim? A claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to accept.
In a Toulmin argument, what are the grounds? The grounds (or data) is the basis of real persuasion and is made up of data and hard facts, plus the reasoning behind the claim.
In the Toulmin approach to argument, what is a warrant? A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be relevant.
In a Toulmin argument what is the backing? The backing (or support) for an argument gives additional support to the warrant by answering different questions.
In a Toulmin argument what is the qualifier? the qualifier (or modal qualifier) indicates the strength of the leap from the data to the warrant and may limit how universally the claim applies.
In a Toulmin argument, what is the rebuttal? The rebuttal is a counter argument proposed by the opposition
The acronym GASCAP stands for what? Generalization Analogy Sign Casualty Authority Principle
Which argument approach uses the GASCAP model? The Toulmin approach
What is a generalization warrant? It assumes that what is true of a well-chosen sample is likely to hold for a larger group or population
What is an analogy warrant? When similarities can are established between two contexts, and assumptions for the outcome are made based on those similarities.
What is a sign warrant? The notion that one thing is influenced by another
What is a casual warrant? Arguing that a given occurrence or event is the result of, or is effected by, factor X
What is an authority warrant? Does person X or text X constitutes an authoritative source on the issue in question? What political, ideological or economic interests does the authority have?
What is a principle warrant? Locating a principle that is widely regarded as valid and showing that a situation exists in which this principle applies
Who was the Rogerian approach to argument named for? Carl Rogers
What are the components to the Rogerian approach to argument? An introduction A neutral statement of the opposition's beliefs A neutral statement and explanation of your beliefs An analysis A proposal
In a Rogerian argument define the role of the introduction The introduction briefly and objectively defines the issue or problem
In a Rogerian argument, what is the purpose of stating the opponents view? It demonstrates the writer clearly understands the opponent's point of view.
What is the purpose of the neutral statement and explanation of your argument in a Rogerian argument? It demonstrates your position and the contexts in which it is valid
What is the purpose of analysis in a Rogerian argument? To demonstrate what the two positions have in common and what goals and values they share
In a Rogerian argument, what is the proposal? The proposal is a statement that resolves the issue in a way that recognizes the interests of both parties.
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