Animal Science 319

Flashcards by michgreg, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by michgreg about 6 years ago


Lecture Vocab and Information

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Nutrition The sum of the chemical and physiological activities that convert food elements into body elements. This not only includes food, but also the need for specific food components.
Nutrient Any feed constituents (or group) of the same general chemical general chemical composition that permits functioning of life processes. Includes: Water, Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Minerals, and Vitamins. May be essential or nonessential. Not all are necessarily nutrients.
Feed (Feedstuff) A component of an animal's ration generally of plant or animal origin which may act as a source of nutrients for animals. May be manufactured or mined.
Feed Constituent Examples Lignin, essential oils, waxes, toxic minerals and compounds.
Classes of Feedstuff Energy Concentrates Protein Concentrates Roughages Mineral Concentrates Vitamin Concentrates
Energy Concentrate Examples Grains Fats
Protein Concentrate Examples Oilseed meals Grain By-Products Animal by products Nonprotein nitrogen sources (Urea)
Roughages Examples Pasture Hay Silages
Mineral Concentrate Examples Ca2+, Na, Cl, etc.
Vitamin Concentrate Examples Vitamin B12, A, C, ex.
Diet A mixture of one or more feedstuffs including water that is consumed by animals
Ration The total amount of feed that is provided to one animal in a 24 hour period.
Balanced Ration A ration having all known nutrients in the proper amounts and proportions based upon the recommendations of a recognized authorities in animal nutrition for an animal at a given physiological stage.
1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics Isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward the state of maximum entropy. Meaning: energy in needed to make bonds, and heat will be released if the bonds are broken.
Metabolism the sum of all the breakdown (catabolic) and synthetic (anabolic) processes of nutrients incidental to life.
Energy The equivalent of the capacity to do work
Digestion The preparation of food for absorption by breaking (hydrolyzing) it. Includes: Mechanical, chemical, enzymatic, and microbial breakdown.
Fermentation Anaerobic metabolism of nutrients by gut microorganisms. Occurs in the stomach or large intestine
Prehension Grasping of Food
Mastication Chewing of food
Deglutition Swallowing of food
Regurgitation Casting up of undigested food
Absorption Processes that allow small molecules to pass through the small intestine calles into the blood or lymph
Excretion Removal of wastes from the body
Enzyme An organic catalyst that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the process.
pH -log[h+] On a scale from 0 to 14.
Classification of Animal Digestive Tract By digestive tract Either Monogastric or Ruminant
Buffer A mixture of a weak acid and it's salt that prevents pH change
Classification of Animals by Diet Carnivores Herbivores or Omnivores
4 Processes of Food Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, and elimination
Animal Classification By Eating Method Suspension Substrate Fluid Feeders Bulk Feeders
Types of Digestion Hydrolytic (Enzymatic) Fermentative (in tract somewhere)
Hard Palate Helps animal with chewing
Soft Palate Helps animal with swallowing
Teeth Differ between species Used to chew food
Tongue Papillae Fillform- hairlike Fungiform- Fungus-like, contains taste buds Follate- Leaflike, contains taste buds only in nonruminate Circumvallate- alrge circle surrounded by a groove, contains taste buds.
Functions of the tongue 1. Taste 2. Chewing 3. Swallowing
Types of Salivary Glands Serous-High volume of watery secretion Mixed- Somewhat viscous saliva Mucous-Very viscous saliva
Regions of the Stomach Esophageal- No glands Cardiac- Secretes Mucus Fundic- Secretes HCl, pepsinogen and mucus Pyloric- Secretes gastrin and mucus
Mucus Neck Cells Secrete Mucus near surface of stomach lumen.
Parietal Cells Secrete HCl
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen and intrinsic factor
Stomach Secretions HCl Mucus Pepsinogen Rennin Lipase
Control of Gastric Secretions Cephalic - head (nervous system) Gastric - Stomach Intestinal - Intestine
Gastrin Hormone that tells the stomach to wait a bit before dumping chyme into the small intestine. Also dumps pepsinogen into the small intestine.
3 Layers of the Small Intestine 1. Serosa- outer layer 2. Muscularis- Muscle 3. Submucosa- Blood vessels- absorbs things 4. Mucosa- Villi and microvili aka brush border
Ruminant Lips Range from very stiff to very flexible. The more flexibility the more selection of feed.
Ruminant Teeth Upper jaw wider than lower jaw. Chew in a lateral motion: allows for grinding of fibers. Teeth will eventually become beveled.
Ruminant Tongue `Shape will vary. Texture from monogastric is different. Papillae are more stiff and hooklike: allows for better grip on feeds. Higher number of taste buds.
Ruminant Saliva Composed of: Mucin Water Buffers: NaCO3 and Na2HPO4 They are isotonic to plasma
Cellulolytic Bacteria of the Rumen Digest Cellulose Growth Req. pH of 6 or 7, Nitrogen, sulfur Reduction of cellulose digestion results in dysfunction of any of the above.
Amylolytic Bacteria of the Rumen Digests Starches Growth Req.- pH 5 to 6, Nitrogen and peptides End products are acetic acid, butyric acid, CO2, and H2.
High Grain Diets: Good things High grain diets will increase the proportion of propionic acid. This is good for beef cattle at the feedlot.
Lactic Acidosis An overgrowth of Strep. bovis. Causes lactic acid build-up in the blood stream. Can cause decreased blood pH, hemoconcentration and death.
Rumen Archea Produce Methane for the rumen. Gas is released from eructation.
Rumen Protozoa Only found in the rumen. All are ciliated. Associated with methanogens as well. Growth Req.- pH 5.5-7, Nitrogen source Function: Assist fiber digestion, store sugars and starches. End products are fermentative.
Rumen Fungi Low numbers Requires sulfur to grow Function: Initiate the digestion of the least digestible forms of cellulose.
Microbe Pop. in High Forage Diets High Rumination High Salivary Buffers High Cellulose, hemicellulose High Rumen pH High cellulytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria High Methanogens High Protozoa High Acetic acid and methane, low propionic Acid.
Microbe Pop. in High Grain Diets Low rumination Low salivary buffers Low pH Low cellulolytic and hemidcellulolytic bacteria High amylolytic bacteria Low methanogens Low Protozoa High propionic Acid Low Acetic Acid and Methane
Fine Grinding Diets Acts the same as a high concentrate diet.
Ionophores in Diet Act the same as a high concentrate diet.
Buffers Act the same as a high forage diet.
GI Maturation Differs with species. Humans take the longest Pigs: 12 weeks (AKA Nursery Phase) Rats: 8 weeks
Digestive tract Changes 1. Relative size of the compartments 2. Enzymatic Activity 3. Changes in Absorption.
Gastric Digestion -Reservoir for controlled release of digesta to the small intestine -Mixing food and mechanical breakdown of feed -Hydrolyzic digestion by acid and enzymes -Kills Bacteria -Secrete intrinsic factor, needed for Vit. B12 absorption -Hormone Production
Matured Small Intestine Duodenum: Releases bile and pancreatic secretions Active site of digestion Jejunum: Active site of nutrient absorption Ileum: Active site of nutrient absorption. (Mostly water, vitamins, and minerals) Bacterial presence (Fermentation) *The pH gradually goes to a pH of 7 as in goes though the small intestine.
Colostrum The first milk that a mammal produces for offspring. Contains antibodies for the young animal Passive Immunity Type
Absorption of Antibdoies Whole, through the small intestine wall. After 36 hours, absorption is no longer possible
Composition of Colostrum Fat Protein Lactose Immunoglobulins Vit A, E and B12 *Composition varies by species
Enzymatic Activity Increases with age
Carbohydrases lactase: high in neonates Sucrase: Low activity til 9 weeks Maltase: Adequate activity after 1 week Amylase: low at birth, rising levels at day 14 and mature equiv. at 42 days
Lipase Appears at 1 to 2 weeks and in stable after that point Fat is always needed, hence the presence
Proteolytic Enzymes and Acids HCl and pepsinogen and low at birth Acid not detected until 3 weeks, mature levels at 2 months Pepsin increases rapidly after 2 weeks. Pancreatic proteases begin to appear after 4 weeks and increase rapidly after that.
Rennin Secreted by the stomach to curdle or coagulate milk in the stomach. This keeps the milk in the stomach for a longer period of time for better digestion. After a few days, this is substituted by pepsin.
Feeding monogastric Neonates When feeding, start with a milk based diets. Switching diets, keep nutrients similar to original diet and slowly switch over.
Phases in Ruminant Digestive Development Preruminant- must be fed as a non ruminant AKA liquid diet Transition- 4 to 8 weeks of age. Diet Dependent Functional Ruminant- after 4 to 8 weeks
Changes in Transition State of Ruminants Absorption, Function of Reticular groove, enzyme activity, volume and absorptive capacity, development of the microbial population in the rumen.
Antibody Absorption in Pre-Ruminants Calves are born without a functional immune system High at birth to 24 hours after birth. After 24 hours, the epithelium closes down, preventing absorption of antibodies.
Function of the Reticular Groove Directly transfer milk from the esophagus to the abomasum. Stimulated by suckling and milk proteins in the pharynx. Efficient milk transfer equal between bucket and nipple fed for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, nipple fed are better because of sigmoid flex of neck and increased saliva flow
Changes in Proteases: Rennin Low at birth, except at day 1, very high!! Low at 8 weeks
Changes in Proteases: Pepsin and HCl Low at Birth Adult levels at 8 weeks of age
Changes in Proteases: Pancreatic Proteases Low at Birth Adult levels at 8 weeks
Changes in Carbohydrases: Lactase High at Birth Low at 8 weeks (Diet Dependent)
Changes in Carbohyrdases: Amylase Low at Birth High at 8 weeks
Changes in Carbohydrases: Maltase Low at Birth Adult Levels at 8 weeks
Changes in Lipases: Pregastric esterase High at Birth Low at 8 weeks (diet dependent)
Changes in Lipases: Lipase High at Birth Adult Levels at 8 weeks of age
Consequences of Feeding Poor Quality Milk Replacers Reduced growth Rate Scours
Changes in Volume of Stomach Reticulum: Stays the same Rumen: Changes from 25 to 80 percent from birth to weaning Omasum: Stays the same Abomasum: Changes from 60 to 7 percent from birth to weaning
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