IB Psychology SL - 8 Mark Questions

Flashcards by Shausutton, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Shausutton about 6 years ago


Flashcards on IB Psychology SL - 8 Mark Questions, created by Shausutton on 02/07/2015.

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SL Psychology - Cognitive Level of Analysis LO: 2. Explain how principles defining CLOA may be demonstrated in research through theories and/or studies. Essay: Explain how 1 principle of CLOA's demonstrated in 1 piece of research.
1st Paragraph; Explain the first principle. -Complex machine. -Top-down & bottom-up -Behaviour. -False memories. Human beings are information processors and mental processes guide behaviour. Psychologists see the mind as a complex machine. The brain's the hardware and mental representations are the software. Information entering the mind from the sensory system is called bottom-up processing and information processed in the mind is top-down processing via info previously stored in the memory. Finally there's some output in the form of behaviour. People's memories may not be infallible because of reconstructive memory. People only store outlines of events and fill in the gaps when recalling, spending on how they're asked to recall it. This can lead memories as people cannot distinguish between what they've experienced and what they've heard after the event. The brain's able to fabricate illusions which are so realistic we believe they are true.
2nd Paragraph; State the AMRC of a study. -Loftus and Palmer -The second study AMR Study Two; P - This provided additional insights into the origin of the different speed estimates and if pps memories really had been distorted by the verbal label. 150 student pps viewed a 1 minute film containing a 4 second scene of a multiple car accident and were questioned about it. There were 3 conditions and the IV was manipulated by wording of the Q, 50pps were asked 'how fast were the cars going when they hit eachother?' For the other 50pps hit was changed to smashed and the rest of the pps were not asked about the speed of the vehicle. R - The verb smashed had a significant effect on the misperception of glass in the film. Pps in this condition were twice as likely to recall seeing broken glass.
2nd Paragraph; State the AMRC of a study. - C of both studies. Results show that the verbal communication affected the pps memory in both cases. Over time, information pps gain before and after an event may be interrogated in such a way that we're unable to tell from which source some specific detail's recalled, we only have 'one' memory.
3rd Paragraph; Link principle to study. People's memories may not be infallible because of reconstructive memory. The pps from the study filled in the gaps by using the vocabulary to change/alter the actual car crash videos they had seen. Therefore pps gained a false memory of what they had seen and appeared to ''fill in the gaps,'' with inaccurate information.
SL Psychology - Cognitive Level of Analysis LO: 7. Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. Essay: Explain how biological factors affect one cognitive process.
1st Paragraph; Outline the cognitive process & biological factor. - Memory - Describe hippocampus - brain damage The cognitive process, memory, has many biological factors that can affect it. For example, the hippocampus is a section of the brain related to long-term memory. Damage to the hippocampus can affect an individuals memory, it could result in retrograde, loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease, or anterograde amnesia, the loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia
2nd Paragraph; Give an AMRC of a study. - Clive Wearing In the case study of Clive Wearing- His hippocampus and some other frontal regions of his brain were damaged due to a brain infection. He lost the ability to retain information and couldn't access old info. He developed both anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
3rd Paragraph. Link study to biological factor. The study shows that the hippocampus is involved with memory and if damaged, it can cause aspects of memory to be affected. The study also shows that there is a dsitribution of memory stores within the brain and is not just focused on the hippocampus. In addition to this, the study shows that the hippocampus allows the formation of new memories, if damaged, the ability to form new memories is inhibited.
SL Psychology - Cognitive Level of Analysis Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.
Outline FBM FBM, founded by Bartlett - these are highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshots' of the moment and circumstances in which surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard. Can be affected by culture - Individualist = people are viewed as unique and autonomous. Someone's emotions are unique, expressing emotion's encouraged and acceptable. Collectivist - identity's defined more by group membership than individual qualities such as emotions. Self expression and self autonomy are inhabited. In some cases - expression of emotion's seen as dangerous and not encouraged, therefore members are not encouraged to reflect or ruminate on their emotions.
Study TEETH Paragraph: - conducted cross-cultural research into the occurrence of FBMs, finding that Chinese pps, when asked to recall memories of public events, recalled fewer FBM details than pps from USA, UK, Turkey & Germany.
TMT... (Link study to first para.)
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