Geography Definitions

Flashcards by P H, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by P H over 5 years ago


IB Others Flashcards on Geography Definitions, created by P H on 02/20/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define core and periphery The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales
Define Ecological Footprint The theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste under prevailing technology
Define global climate change The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level and habitats and the incidence of drougb, floods and storms resulting from changes in the Earth's atmosphere, believe to be mainly caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect
Define GNI (Gross National Income) The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries
Define migration The movement of people, involving a change of residence. It can be internal or external, voluntary or forced and does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism
Define Remittances Transfers of money and goods by foreign workers to their home countries
Define soil degradation A severe reduction in the quality of solid (includes soil erosion, salinisation and soil exhaustion (loss of fertility)
Define water scarcity PHYSICAL WATER SCARCITY: Water resource development is approaching or has exceeded unsustainable levels. Relates water availability to water demand and implies that arid areas are not necessarily water scarce ECONOMIC WATER SCARCITY: Where water is available locally but not accessible for human, industrial or financial capital reasons
Define drainage basin The area drained by a river and its tributaries
Define drainage divide (watershed) The line defining the boundary of a river or stream drainage basin separating it from adjacent basins
Define maximum sustainable yield The maximum level of extraction of water that can be maintained indefinitely for given areas
Define wetlands Areas that are regularly saturated by surface water or groundwater, including freshwater marshes, swamps and bogs
Define disaster A major hazard event that causes widespread disruption to a community or region that the affected community is unable to deal with adequately without outside help
Define hazard A threat (whether natural or human) that has the potential to cause loss of life, injury, property damage, socio-economic disruption or environmental degradation
Define a hazard event The occurrence of a hazard, the effects of which change demographic, economic and/or environmental conditions
Define risk The probability of a hazard event causing harmful consequences (death/injury /property damage /economic problems / environmental issues)
Define vulnerability The suspect ability of a community to a hazard or to the impacts of a hazard event
Define food miles A measure of the distance that food travels from its source to the consumer - can be given as actual distance or energy consumed during transport
Define HALE (Health adjusted life expectancy) Based of life expectancy at birth, but includes adjustment for the time spent in poor health (due to disease/ injury) It is the equivalent number of years in full health that a newborn can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality
Define a TNC (Transnational corporation) A firm that owns or controls productive operations in more than one country through foreign direct investment
Define civil society Any organisation or movement that works in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern Civil societies contain NGOs, community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith- based organisations
Define cultural imperialism the practice of promotion the culture/ language of one nation in another It is usually the case that the former is large, economically or military powerful nation and the latter is a smaller, less affluent one
Define globalisation The growing independence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-boarder transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology
Define globalisation indices The AT Kearney foreign policy index measures twelve variables, which are subdivided into four "baskets" 1. economic integration 2. personal contact 3. technology connectivity 4. political engagement. Nations are then ranked according to a calculated globalisation index The KOF index measures three main dimensions of globalisation - economic, political and social. Nations are then ranked accordingly (designed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology on a yearly basis)
Define glocalisation A term that was envenomed to emphasise that the globalisation of a product is more likely to succeed then the product or service is adapted specifically to each locality or culture in which it is marketed
Define outsourcing The concept of taking internal company functions and paying an outside firm to handle them (done to save money, improve quality or free company resources for other technologies)
Define time- spacioconvergence The reduction in time taken to travel between two places due to improvements in transportation or communication technology
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