Vet Nursing Glossary 1

Hannah Spicer
Flashcards by Hannah Spicer, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Spicer
Created by Hannah Spicer about 6 years ago


Flashcards on Vet Nursing Glossary 1, created by Hannah Spicer on 02/28/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Acid/base balance maintenance of the normal pH within the body systems
Absorption the movement of a fluid or a dissolved substance across a cell membrane, for example the soluble products of digestion pass through the mucus membrane of the small intestine into the blood stream.
Acromegaly excess growth of bones after the epiphyses have closed, caused by excess secretion of growth hormone.
Actin a contractile protein found in muscle Fibers
Active transport the movement of molecules or ions through transport proteins across a cell membrane, against their concentration gradient. The process requires energy from ATP
Acute a disease that has a rapid onset, short duration and pronounced clinical signs.
Ad libitum feeding feeding performed with freedom. Sometimes called free-choice or Ad lib.
Additive a substance purposely put into food to give a desirable characteristic (e.g. color, flavor, texture, resistance to spoilage etc).
Adipose tissue fat tissue in the body
Aerobic requiring oxygen for life and growth
Aerobic respiration the enzymatic release of energy from the oxidation of organic compounds in living cells in a process requiring oxygen.
Afferent nerve fibers carry nerve impulses towards the central nervous system.
Agonal gasp: a terminal breathing pattern where the animal appears to be gasping for breath
Agonist Something which increases a response
Albumin the most abundant plasma protein. Principally responsible for maintenance of circulating blood volume by preventing too much water leaving the capillaries by osmosis.
Allele one of two or more different forms of a gene. Different alleles of a gene occupy the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Alleles these are alternative forms of a gene, showing different options for the same gene e.g. red, black, white coat Colouring. Each has a specific place or ‘locus’ on the chromosome.
Alopecia A partial or complete loss of hair in areas where it is normally present.
What does AMTRA stand for? Animal Medicines Training Regulatory Authority
Anabolic reaction a reaction in which chemical substances are built up and energy is used.
Anaerobic not requiring oxygen
Anaerobic respiration the partial oxidation of organic compounds in the cell to release energy, in a process which does not require oxygen.
Anastomosis an artificial or naturally occurring connection between two structures, which are normally separate, for example between blood vessels or loops of intestine.
Androgens group of male sex hormones e.g., testosterone.
Anemia a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells.
Anion negatively charged particle.
Anode positively charged electrode to which electrons are attracted
Anorexia loss of appetite for food.
Antagonist Something which prevents or decreases a response
Anthropozoonosis a disease which can be passed from man to animals
Antibody a globular protein or immunoglobulin, made by plasma cells and secreted into the plasma in response to a specific antigen, in order to destroy and eliminate the antigen from the body.
Antidotes specific reversing agent for a poison
Antigen a substance that is foreign to the body and stimulates an immune response.
Antiperistalsis movement of food material up the digestive tract. This is in the opposite direction to peristalsis.
Antisepsis the prevention of sepsis (presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues)
Antiseptic a chemical use to control, prevent or destroy pathogens present on living tissues/skin.
Anuria lack of urine output.
Anxiolysis: decrease level of anxiety
apnea Breathholding
Arrhythmia an abnormal heart rhythm
Artefact any mark on a radiograph which decreases the quality
Artery blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
As fed basis the concentration of a nutrient in the food as it is fed to the animal, which includes the water content of the food.
Ascites excess fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Asepsis freedom from infectious material
Aseptic the complete absence of bacteria, viruses or fungi that could cause disease. Asepsis is the ideal situation for the performance of surgical or other invasive procedures, and is achieved by sterilisation techniques
Asexual reproduction reproduction which involves only one parent and produces offspring which are identical to the parent.
Asystole no electrical activity in the heart – a ‘flat line’ on the ECG
Atom smallest particle capable of existing on its own or as molecules when in combination with other atoms
ATP adenosine triphosphate, a high energy phosphate molecule used to store and release energy for work within the body.
Auscultation technique used for listening to the sounds of the body with the use of a stethoscope, for example the heart beat and respiratory sounds within the thoracic cavity.
Autonomic nervous system part of the peripheral nervous system that supplies stimulation to the cardiac and smooth muscles and the glands of the body, involved in unconscious control.
Autosomes all the chromosomes within the nucleus of the cell except the sex chromosomes.
Autotransformer prevents fluctuations in the mains voltage and ensures constant 240 volts supplied to the X-ray machine
AVM GSL Authorised Veterinary Medicine - General Sales List
Azotaemia increased levels of nitrogenous by products in the bloodstream
Bacteria prokaryotic single celled organism
What sizes does bacteria range from? Ranges in size from 0.3µm - 10 µm
Bacteriaemia the presence of bacteria in the blood
Bacteriostatic Prevents bacteria from multiplying but does not kill them
Barrier nursing utilisation of protective clothing and isolation to prevent transmission of disease from hospitalised animals
Basophil type of granular white blood cell
Biliary pertaining to the bile duct
Bilirubin yellow green bile pigment which results from the breakdown of red blood cells.
Bilirubinuria presence of bile or bilirubin in the urine
Binary fission the replication of bacteria
Biological vectors the organism undergoes part of its lifecycle inside the host
Blood brain barrier protective barrier that prevents harmful materials in the blood affecting the brain.
Blood plasma fluid surrounding the blood cells and transported by the blood-vascular system
Bolus ball of chewed food bound together with saliva that is formed in the mouth by the action of the tongue
Brachycephalic breeds of dog and cat with a squashed facial confirmation, e.g. boxers, bull dogs, pugs. Persian cats.
What do traits do brachycephalic animals tend to have? These animals tend to have overlong soft palates, excessive soft tissue in their oral cavity and pharynx, smaller tracheal diameters than excpected, and small nasal openings
Bradycardia a slower than normal heart rate
Bradypnea slowed respiratory rate
Buffer a substance which is able to resist change in the pH of a solution so that the pH remains constant.
Calculus stone like deposits of minerals salts found in hollow organs or on the teeth. In the urethra it can result in blockage of the passage of urine.
Calling persistent yowling exhibited by the female cat (queen) during the proestrous period of the estrous cycle
Canaliculus a space containing a cytoplasmic process of an osteocyte in bone tissue, or, a space between rows of cells in the liver along which bile flows
Capillary refill time (CRT) time taken for blood capillaries to refill after being emptied in some way.
Carcinogenic harmful effects of X-rays which induce tumor formation
Carnivore meat eating animal
Carrier an individual who has a copy of a recessive gene that is not expressed because of heterozygosity, but the gene can be passed on to the next generation, alternatively, an individual, infected with a pathogen, but not showing any symptoms of disease.
Carriers convalescent carrier: animal which has had the disease and recovered
Carrion decaying flesh
Catabolic reaction a reaction in which chemical substances are broken down and energy is released.
Cathode negatively charged electrode which produces electrons
Cation a positively charged particle
Caudal fermenter herbivorous animal whose main microbial fermentation takes place in the large intestine
Cell a structure bound by a plasma membrane, containing cytoplasm and organelles; the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms.
Central Nervous System part of the nervous system. Consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
Centrioles an organelle composed of microtubules, that is involved in the formation of the spindle during mitosis
Centromere the part of the chromosome to which spindle Fibers attach during cell division
Cerebro spinal fluid clear fluid resembling plasma but with a lower protein content. Flows in the ventricular system of the brain, central canal of the spinal cord and in the subarachnoid space of the brain.
Chloroplasts organelles, found in plant cells, which contain chlorophyll (green pigment) They are the sites of photosynthesis
Chondrocyte cell found in cartilage
Chromatid Two identical chromosomes, joined together by a centromere, formed during the interphase of the cell cycle.
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