Exchange and transport, transport in plants key definitions

Amy Darvill
Flashcards by Amy Darvill, updated more than 1 year ago
Amy Darvill
Created by Amy Darvill about 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Exchange and transport, transport in plants key definitions, created by Amy Darvill on 03/02/2015.

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Question Answer
Vascular tissue/bundle: This is the transport tissue in a plant that is found in a bundle. It contains both xylem and phloem
Endodermis: A ring of cells that form the inner layer of the cortex of a root. It surrounds the xylem and phloem
Meristem cells: These are undifferentiated plant cells that are capable of rapid cell division
Pericycle: A layer of cells in the root that lays just inside the endodermis, normally made up of Meristem cells
Xylem: A plant tissue containing xylem vessel and other cells to transport water in a plant, they also provide the plant with support
Lignin: This is a waterproofing substance that surrounds the walls of xylem tissue
Parenchyma: They are relatively unspecialised plant cells. They may be able to photosynthesis and they store food and support young plants
Phloem: A tissue in plants that is used to transport dissolved sugars and other substances
Sieve tube elements: A cell found in phloem tissue though which the sap containing sucrose is transported
Companion cell: A cell in the phloem that is involved in loading sucrose into the sieve tube elements
Cambium: Plant tissue found in the stem and root that contains dividing cells
Turgid: This describes a cell that is full of water as a result of entry of water by osmosis
Water potential: This is the measure of the ability of water to move freely in a solution
Osmosis: This is the net movement of particles down the concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane
Apoplast pathway: The root taken by water between the cells or through the cell walls in a plant
Symplast pathway: The route taken by water through the cytoplasm of cells in a plant
Vacuolar pathway: The path taken by water in plants as it passes from cell to cell via the cytoplasm and vacuole
Plasmodesmata: These are gaps in the cell that contain a fine strand of cytoplasm
Casparian strip: This is the strip of water proof material in the cell wall of epidermis cells. It also blocks the Apoplast pathway.
Transpiration: The loss of water vapour from the aerial plants of a plant due to evaporation
Cohesion: The attraction between water molecules due to hydrogen bonding
Adhesion: This is the force of attraction the water molecules have to the side of the xylem vessel this helps transports the water up the xylem.
Stomata: These are pores in the leaf epidermis that open and close to allow diffusion of gases and transpiration
Xerophytes: These are plants that a specifically adapted to living in dry areas
Translocation: The movement of sucrose and other substances up and down the phloem
Co transporter proteins: This allows movement of sucrose by linking it to the hydrogen ions
Sink: A part of the plant that removes sugars from the phloem
Source: A part of the plant that releases sugars into the phloem
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