Medicine

a.wall
Flashcards by a.wall, updated more than 1 year ago
a.wall
Created by a.wall about 6 years ago
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GCSE Medicine Flashcards on Medicine, created by a.wall on 03/24/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Who developed the Theory of the 4 Humours? Hippocrates
Name the 4 humours Black bile, Yellow bile, Blood, Phlegm
Explain how the theory of 4 humours works When ill the body has too much of one humour and this needs to be removed by purging, bloodletting, etc
Who was Galen? A roman doctor living in the 2nd century BC
What theory did Galen develop? Theory of Opposites
How did Galen’s theory work? Instead of removing excess humours the doctor can now add the opposite humour to put them back in balance
Why did people still believe in Galen 1000 years later? The Church supported Galen's teachings and no-one dared to question the church
How did the church influence ideas about the cause and treatment of disease? Disease was a punishment sent by God for your sins, only prayers could cure you.
What did people believe caused the Black Death? God and other supernatural reasons
What treatments did people use against the plague? Prayer, lucky charms, bloodletting, purging
What was the role of women in medicine in the middle ages? Housewife-physician knew traditional remedies and herbal remedies, could treat broken bones and childbirth
What did Vesalius write? Fabric of the Human Body in 1543
How did Vesalius prove Galen wrong and why was this important? His illegal dissections proved that some of Galen's teachings were wrong, e.g. the human jawbone was not in two parts.
What did Harvey do? Proved that blood was circulated around the body by the heart, not as Galen said produced in the liver and used up by the body.
Why was the invention of the printing press important? It allowed new ideas to be spread easily and cheaply around Europe.
Who developed better lenses for microscopes in the 17th century? Antoine van Leeuwenhoek's new lenses allowed him to see bacteria, which he called animalcules.
What were living conditions like in the industrial revolution? overcrowded, air and water pollution, unhygienic
Name 4 killer diseases in the industrial revolution Diptheria, Cholera, Smallpox, Typhoid, Tubercolosis
Describe the two main theories of the causes of disease in 1800. Spontaneous Generation Miasma
What did Jenner discover? A vaccination for smallpox.
How did Jenner make his discovery? Observed that milkmaids caught cowpox and this made them immune to smallpox.
List the factors involved in Jenner’s discovery Chance, Government intervention, Individual
Who developed Germ Theory? French Chemist Louis Pasteur in 1861.
How was Germ Theory developed? While working in the brewing industry Pasteur observed through an improved microscope that microbes grew in the liquid.
What was the role of Robert Koch? In 1875 Koch investigated whether bacteria was linked to disease, he then identified the microbes that caused anthrax in sheep. Later he identified the microbes that caused TB and cholera.
Who was John Hunter and what did he do? Hunter was a mid-17th century doctor. He lectured on anatomy and emphasised the importance of observation and experiment. Jenner was one of his students.
How did you become a doctor in the 1800s Need a certificate from one of 3 colleges; Surgeons, Apothecaries or Physicians. By 1858 all doctors had to be registered with the General Medical Council.
Why is Elizabeth Garrett Anderson famous? Fought convention to become the first female doctor in Britain.
Explain why Florence Nightingale is important to nursing. Work in Crimean War was reported by newspapers. established a nursing school in London in 1860. Wrote over 200 books. Set high standards for care and nursing.
What were conditions like in hospitals in the early 1800s? Hospitals were funded by donations, treatment depended on ability to pay. Many poor people entered workhouses where the could get some treatment.
How had hospitals changed by 1900? Clean sheets, wooden floors for easy cleaning, nurses dressed in white uniforms, big windows for light and ventilation, a more professional approach.
What is a magic bullet? A chemical drug which targets a specific disease without harming the rest of the body.
Who discovered Salvarsan 606 Ehrlich's team were trying to find a cure for syphilis, but were unsuccessful. However, a new team member, Dr Hata, checked previous results and found that experiment 606 was effective.
What was the 2nd magic bullet and who discovered it? Prontosil, discovered by Domagk in 1932,was effective against blood poisoning. The key ingredient was a compound called sulphonamide.
How did Fleming discover penicillin? While working on another experiment he noticed that a mould had grown and was attacking the bacteria he was working on.
What was the role of Florey and Chain? When Fleming abandoned his research these two carried picked up the research in 1939, to try to find a way to mass produce penicillin.
Why was the NHS set up? To provide free universal health care to British people.
What does the NHS provide? Eye tests, ambulances, emergency care, intensive care, dentists, etc., etc.
Name 5 modern pieces of medical equipment X-ray machines, endoscopes, pacemakers, dialysis machines, scanners, microscopes, radiotherapy, etc.
Name the problems with water supply in 1350. No rubbish removal, no sewers, no fresh water supply, polluted rivers, no link between dirt and disease.
What does laissez-faire mean? No government intervention.
How did the local authorities try to stop the spread of the plague in 1665? Closed theatres, banned large funerals, killed cats and dogs, collected dead daily, isolated plague victims in their houses, prayed.
Explain why the government was involved in the problem of gin and vaccinations Gin was having a bad effect on society and the economy. Vaccinations were ordered because people were scared to have them voluntarily.
Who was Edwin Chadwick and what did he do? Secretary to the Workhouse Commission, he wrote a report on living conditions among the working class.
Why was Chadwick's report ignored? Water companies thought it would affect profits. Middle classes didn't want to pay more taxes. The idea of laissez-faire.
What did the 1848 Health Act set out to do? Allowed towns to set up their own Board of Health, appoint a local medical officer, organise rubbish removal, build sewers.
What did the 1875 Health Act set out to do? Made councils responsible for providing clean water, public toilets, rubbish removal, sewers and drains.
Who was John Snow and what did he do? A doctor, in 1854, investigating the cause of cholera, discovered that the cause was polluted water, however he still thought that this was concentrated miasma
Who was Joseph Bazalgette and what did he do? Engineer who built the London sewer system as a consequence of the Great Stink of 1858.
How does the government educate people about health? Promotion of healthy diets, education in schools, anti-smoking campaigns and laws, health and safety laws, disposal of rubbish, Clean Air Act, health officers to check restaurants, vaccines for children.
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